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Before we learn how routing works in Angular, let’s just have a quick overview on Single-Page Applications.

What are Single Page Applications?

Single page applications or (SPAs) are web applications that load a single HTML page and dynamically update the page based on the user interaction with the web application.

What is Routing in AngularJS?

Routing in AngularJS is a method that allows you to create Single Page Applications. It enables you to create different URLs for different content in your web applications. AngularJS routing also helps to show multiple contents depending on which route is chosen. It is specified in the URL after the # sign.

In this tutorial, you will learn-

On this page, you would host the main page of your application. Suppose if the application was organizing an Event and one wanted to see what the various events on display are, or wanted to see the details of a particular event or delete an event. In a Single Page application, when routing is enabled, all of this functionality would be available via the following links

The # symbol would be used along with the different routes (ShowEvent, DisplayEvent, and DeleteEvent).

Note that the main URL stays the same.

Adding AngularJS Route using $routeProvider

So as we discussed earlier, routes in AngularJS are used to route the user to a different view of your application. And this routing is done on the same HTML page so that the user has the experience that he has not left the page.

In order to implement routing the following main steps have to be implemented in your application in any specific order.

Reference to chúng tôi This is a JavaScript file developed by Google that has all the functionality of routing. This needs to be placed in your application so that it can reference all of the main modules which are required for routing.

The next important step is to add a dependency to the ngRoute module from within your application. This dependency is required so that routing functionality can be used within the application. If this dependency is not added, then one will not be able to use routing within the chúng tôi application.

Below is the general syntax of this statement. This is just a normal declaration of a module with the inclusion of the ngRoute keyword.

var module = angular.module("sampleApp", ['ngRoute']);

    The next step would be to configure your $routeProvider. This is required for providing the various routes in your application.Below is the general syntax of this statement which is very self-explanatory. It just states that when the relevant path is chosen, use the route to display the given view to the user.

    when(path, route)

      Links to your route from within your HTML page. In your HTML page, you will add reference links to the various available routes in your application.

        Finally would be the inclusion of the ng-view directive, which would normally be in a div tag. This would be used to inject the content of the view when the relevant route is chosen.

        AngularJS Routing Example

        Now, let’s look at an example of routing using the above-mentioned steps.

        In our AngularJS routing example with parameters,

        We will present 2 links to the user,

        One is to display the topics for an Angular JS course, and the other is for the chúng tôi course.

        Step 1) Include the angular-route file as a script reference.

        This route file is necessary in order to make use of the functionalities of having multiple routes and views. This file can be downloaded from the chúng tôi website.

        Step 2) Add href tags which will represent links to “Angular JS Topics” and “Node JS Topics.”

        Step 3) Add a div tag with the ng-view directive which will represent the view.

        Step 4) In your script tag for AngularJS, add the “ngRoute module” and the “$routeProvider” service.

        Code Explanation:

        The first step is to ensure to include the “ngRoute module.” With this in place, Angular will automatically handle the routing in your application. The ngRoute module which is developed by Google has all of the functionality which allows for routing to be possible. By adding this module, the application will automatically understand all of the routing commands.

        Step 5) Next is to add controllers to process the business logic for both the AngularController and NodeController.

        In each controller, we are creating an array of key-values pairs to store the Topic names and descriptions for each course. The array variable ‘tutorial’ is added to the scope object for each controller.

        var sampleApp = angular.module(‘sampleApp’,[‘ngRoute’]); sampleApp.config([‘$routeProvider’,

        function($routeProvider){ $routeProvider. when(‘/Angular’,{ templateUrl : ‘/Angular.html’, controller: ‘AngularController’ }). when(“/Node”, { templateUrl: ‘/Node.html’, controller: ‘NodeController’ }); }]); sampleApp.controller(‘AngularController’,function($scope) {

        $scope.tutorial = [ {Name:”Controllers”,Description :”Controllers in action”}, {Name:”Models”,Description :”Models and binding data”}, {Name:”Directives”,Description :”Flexibility of Directives”} ] });


        $scope.tutorial = [ {Name:”Promises”,Description :”Power of Promises”}, {Name:”Event”,Description :”Event of Node.js”}, {Name:”Modules”,Description :”Modules in Node.js”} ] });

        Step 6) Create pages called chúng tôi and Node.html. For each page we are carrying out the below steps.

        These steps will ensure that all of the key-value pairs of the array are displayed on each page.

        Using the ng-repeat directive to go through each key-value pair defined in the tutorial variable.

        Displaying the name and description of each key-value pair.



        If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.


        The output clearly shows that,

        This code will be injected into the “div” tag, which contains the ng-view directive. Also, the content for the course description comes from the “tutorial variable” which was part of the scope object defined in the AngularController.

        Also, notice that the page URL stays the same, it’s only the route after the # tag which changes. And this is the concept of single page applications. The #hash tag in the URL is a separator which separates the route ( which in our case is ‘Angular’ as shown in above image) and main HTML page(Sample.html)

        Creating a Default Route in AngularJS

        Routing in AngularJS also provides the facility to have a default route. This is the route which is chosen if there is no match for the existing route.

        The default route is created by adding the following condition when defining the $routeProvider service.

        The below syntax just simply means to redirect to a different page if any of the existing routes don’t match.

        otherwise ({ redirectTo: 'page' });

        Let’s use the same example above and add a default route to our $routeProvider service.

        function($routeProvider){ $routeProvider. when('/Angular',{ templateUrl : 'Angular.html', controller: 'AngularController' }). when("/Node", { templateUrl: 'Node.html', controller: 'NodeController' }). otherwise({ redirectTo:'/Angular' }); }]);

        Code Explanation:

        Here we are using the same code as above with the only difference is that we are using the otherwise statement and the “redirectTo” option to specify which view should be loaded if no route is specified. In our case we want the ‘/Angular’ view to be shown.

        If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.


        From the output,

        You can clearly see that the default view shown is the angular JS view.

        How to Access Parameters from the AngularJS Route

        The # symbol is the separator between the main application URL and the route.

        Angular is our route

        And finally ‘1’ is the parameter which is added to our route

        The syntax of how parameters look in the URL is shown below:


        Here you will notice that the parameter is passed after the route in the URL.

        So in our AngularJS routes example, above for the Angular JS topics, we can pass a parameters as shown below




        Here the parameters of 1, 2 and 3 can actually represent the topicid.

        Let’s look in detail at how we can implement Angular route with parameter:

        Step 1) Add the following code to your view

        Add a table to show all the topics for the Angular JS course to the user

        In the routeprovider service function, add the:topicId to denote that any parameter passed in the URL after the route should be assigned to the variable topicId.

        Step 3) Add the necessary code to the controller

        Make sure to first add the “$routeParams” as a parameter when defining the controller function. This parameter will have access to all of the route parameters passed in the URL.

        The “routeParams” parameter has a reference to the topicId object, which is passed as a route parameter. Here we are attaching the ‘$routeParams.topicId’ variable to our scope object as the variable ‘$scope.tutotialid’. This is being done so that it can be referenced in our view via the tutorialid variable.

        var sampleApp = angular.module(‘sampleApp’,[‘ngRoute’]);

        sampleApp.config( function($routeProvider){ $routeProvider. when(‘/Angular/:topicId’,{ templateUrl : ‘Angular.html’, controller: ‘AngularController’ }) });

        sampleApp.controller(‘AngularController’,function($scope,$routeParams) {



        Add the expression to display the tutorialid variable in the chúng tôi page.

        If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.


        In the output screen,

        This number will be then taken as a “routeparam” argument by the chúng tôi routeprovider service and can then be accessed by our controller.

        How To Use Angular $route Service

        The $route service allows you to access the properties of the route. The $route service is available as a parameter when the function is defined in the controller. The general syntax of how the $route parameter is available from the controller is shown below;


        myApp is the chúng tôi module defined for your applications

        MyController is the name of the controller defined for your application

        Just like the $scope variable is made available for your application, which is used to pass information from the controller to the view. The $route parameter is used to access the properties of the route.

        Let’s have a look on how we can use the $route service.

        In this example,

        We are going to create a simple custom variable called “mytext,” which will contain the string “This is angular.”

        We are going to attach this variable to our route. And later we are going to access this string from our controller using the $route service and then subsequently use the scope object to display that in our view.

        So, let’s see the steps which we need to carry out to achieve this.

        Step 1) Add a custom key-value pair to the route. Here, we are adding a key called ‘mytext’ and assigning it a value of “This is angular.”

        Step 2) Add the relevant code to the controller

        Add the $route parameter to the controller function. The $route parameter is a key parameter defined in angular, which allows one to access the properties of the route.

        The “mytext” variable which was defined in the route can be accessed via the $route.current reference. This is then assigned to the ‘text’ variable of the scope object. The text variable can then be accessed from the view accordingly.

        var sampleApp = angular.module(‘sampleApp’,[‘ngRoute’]);

        sampleApp.config([‘$routeProvider’, function($routeProvider){ $routeProvider. when(‘/Angular/:topicId’,{ mytext:”This is angular”, templateUrl : ‘Angular.html’, controller: ‘AngularController’ }) }]);

        sampleApp.controller(‘AngularController’,function($scope,$routeParams,$route) {

        $scope.tutorialid=$routeParams.topicId; $scope.text=$route.current.mytext;


        Step 3) Add a reference to the text variable from the scope object as an expression. This will be added to our chúng tôi page as shown below.

        This will cause the text “This is angular” to be injected into the view. The {{tutorialid}} expression is the same as that seen in the previous topic and this will display the number ‘1’.

        If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.


        From the output,

        Enabling HTML5 Routing

        HTML5 routing is used basically to create clean URL. It means the removal of the hashtag from the URL. So the routing URLs, when HTML5 routing is used, would appear as shown below




        This concept is normally known as presenting pretty URL to the user.

        There are 2 main steps which need to be carried out for HTML5 routing.

        Configuring $locationProvider

        Setting our base for relative links

        Let’s look into the detail of how to carry out the above-mentioned steps in our example above

        Step 1) Add the relevant code to the angular module

        Add a baseURL constant to the application – This is required for HTML5 routing so that the application knows what the base location of the application is.

        Add the $locationProvider services. This service allows you to define the html5Mode.

        Set the html5Mode of the $locationProvider service to true.

        Step 2) Remove all the #tags for the links (‘Angular/1’, ‘Angular/2’, ‘Angular/3’) to create easy to read URL.

        var sampleApp = angular.module(‘sampleApp’,[‘ngRoute’]);

        sampleApp.config( function($routeProvider,$locationProvider){ $routeProvider. when(‘/Angular/:topicId’,{ templateUrl : ‘Angular.html’, controller: ‘AngularController’ }) });

        sampleApp.controller(‘AngularController’,function($scope,$routeParams,$route) {



        If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.


        From the output,

        You can see that the # tag is not there when accessing the application.


        Routing is used to present different views to the user on the same web page. This is basically the concept used in Single page applications which are implemented for almost all modern day web applications

        A default route can be set-up for chúng tôi routing. It is used to determine what will be the default view to be shown to the user

        Parameters can be passed to the route via the URL as route parameters. These parameters are then subsequently accessed by using the $routeParams parameter in the controller

        The $route service can be used to define custom key-value pairs in the route which can then be subsequently accessed from within the view

        HTML5 routing is used to remove the #tag from routing URL in angular to form pretty URL

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