Trending October 2023 # How Does Redirect Function Works In Flask # Suggested November 2023 # Top 13 Popular |

Trending October 2023 # How Does Redirect Function Works In Flask # Suggested November 2023 # Top 13 Popular

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Introduction to Flask redirect

Flask redirect is defined as a function or utility in Flask which allows developers to redirect users to a specified URL and assign a specified status code. When this function is called, a response object is returned, and the redirection happens to the target location with the status code. When a website is visited, server receives a request and after processing responds to the request with a three-digit code known as the HTTP code. In a programming world this status code that is returned as a response is known as Errors. Errors and redirect function goes hand in hand.

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Syntax of Flask redirect

1. Importing the redirect and abort function.

from flask import redirect, abort

2. Instantiating of Flask redirect.


3. Using abort function to exit from the code loop, in conjunction to redirect.

Here the code refers to a set of codes that will generate some error, as applicable, and stop any further execution of the application.

How does redirect Function Works in Flask?

Redirect function is one of the big three route resolutions in Flask. We know that any Flask function will have the concept of serving contents through multiple URLs. Routes are the URL where the content is served, and views refers to the content in them. Also, another piece is that the route decorator enables users to list the endpoint along with added functionality of methods that one would expect would happen in the endpoint. Now assume there are multiple users, and we need to create a dynamic URL by their username. For this we can use the concept of dynamic routes. With the dynamic routes and the variable rules, the dynamic URL is created and can be accessed. Now that the route piece is clear, we would need to understand the view responses. The view responses in a Flask application happens in three common ways namely, page template, response and redirecting. We will park the first 2 for some other article, but here we will talk in depth about the redirecting.

In this function we send in a string which corresponds to the path where the user will be redirected to. This string can be either a relative path, an absolute path or even an external URL. The function searches for the corresponding match to the string passed as an argument and correspondingly renders the required template and puts it in front of the user.

Another variation of the redirect function, and the most widely used one, as it is one of the best practices in terms of programming is to route by names rather than by sending in the path of the redirect URL. For this we use a built-in function known as url_for( ) discussed in detail in another article. Onto this we send the name of the view function is passed, the url_for( ) function is responsible for converting the name of the view function to the corresponding URL pattern. One added benefit we would achieve out of this is to prevent any broken links between pages.

Now as a part of redirection, there are status code which can be easily used for communication to the server.

Below is the list of status and what they refer to:

Status Code Messaging Significance

300 The code refers to the message that indicates requests has more than one response.

301 This is to indicate that the resource is moved permanently.

302 This the by default message, denoting that the resource is found.

303 This is to inform that the response doesn’t redirects to something new, but another page.

304 This is o inform that retransmission of the resources is not required.

305 This is a depreciated code, typically instructing the server to connect to proxy.

306 This code is no longer used now.

307 In contrast to the 301, here the resource has been moved temporarily.

Now let us look at one flask application with a redirect capability.

Examples of Flask redirect

Given below are the examples of Flask redirect:

Example #1

Sample code for redirect functionality.


from flask import Flask, redirect, url_for appFlask = Flask(__name__) @appFlask.route("/home") def home(): return redirect(url_for('LoginPage')) @appFlask.route("/LoginPage") def LoginPage(): return "You are redirected to Login Page" if __name__ == "__main__":


Example #2

Using abort function to portray unauthorized login.

from flask import Flask, redirect, url_for, abort appFlask = Flask(__name__) def home(user): if user == 'admin': return redirect(url_for('LoginPageAdmin')) else: abort(401) @appFlask.route("/LoginPageAdmin") def LoginPageAdmin(): return "You are redirected to Login Page" if __name__ == "__main__":


For admin login:

For another user login:

Here we see that when the URL has an argument named as admin, we are redirected to the corresponding URL for admin. In case of any other user, we get an unauthorized access pertaining to the fact that the user is unauthorized for redirect.


To conclude, in this article we have looked at the simple way of working for redirect function and also how abort function goes hand in hand with the redirect function. Usage of this functionality is left to readers to try out these concepts in Flask applications. Also, the list of error codes here will come in handy for our readers to use for correct functionality.

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How Asynchronous Function Works In Mysql?

Introduction to MySQL Asynchronous

MySQL Asynchronous is a technique to support an asynchronous query execution in the server, which defines not prevailing or arising at the equivalent interval.

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Conventionally, the asynchronous approach was applied by various MySQL drivers while executing MySQL query statements. In this concept, some operations could take a long time to accomplish, like executing query commands and opening connections were congested awaiting completion. Thus, to resolve this issue or find a solution, a MySQL developer needs to inscribe a multithreaded application allowing analogous query execution processes in the MySQL server. This gave rise to the asynchronous approach using the X protocol.


Let us evaluate the syntax structure for MySQL Asynchronous concept as follows:

In MySQL, an Asynchronous function is nothing more than a MySQL function that guarantees to yield a promise. A user can implement it like any other programming language function we use that results in a promise:

async function funA(){ return 50; }

The above code presents a simple function syntax to use the async function in MySQL, which, when executed, generates the outcome 50 or, say, prints 50.

Besides this, along with the async function in MySQL, you can also add the keyword await, with any promise and not only to invoke other async functions:

const funA = Promise.resolve(50); console.log(await funA);

This function code also produces the output as 50, same output as the previous one. This is vital since we can wrap any present function that applies callbacks to yield a promise and invoke that function by the async/await arrangement.

How asynchronous function work in MySQL?

A very mutual way to apply MySQL Asynchronous operations is using callbacks. In MySQL, when a callback function is provided, the CRUD operation becomes non-blocking, meaning that the subsequent statement is executed immediately without waiting for the result from the database. However, the callback function is only invoked when the output is available.

Syntax Differences

Based on languages that a user may use, the X DevAPI can implement a function like executeAsync() in altercation for either execute([mysqlx.Async]) or in tallying to execute ([mysqlx.Async]).

Also, MySQL 5.7 version maintenances an X plugin or, say, X protocol that permits, if its library supports, asynchronous query command execution. We can also say that we can use this MySQL X plugin or X protocol with chúng tôi to improve a slow query presentation to have parallel query execution. For this process, we may have to follow the following steps:

Initially, we will have to allow the X plugin to enable in MySQL 5.7.12+ that will implement a different port where 33060 is the default.

Finally, you have completed all the necessary requirements, and you can now begin exploring the features of asynchronous queries and their execution.

Example of MySQL Asynchronous

Let us view the code part for MySQL Asynchronous using the JavaScript chúng tôi as below:

var book = db.getTable ('Books');'BookName','Price') .where('BookName like: bookname') .orderBy('BookName') .bind('bookname','e%') .execute(function (row)) { }) .catch(err){ });

We will write similar code in other code languages like C# then; Here is an example:

var book = db.GetTable ("Books");"BookName","Price") .Where("BookName like: bookname") .OrderBy("BookName") .Bind("bookname","e%") .ExecuteAsync(); { If (t.Exception !=null) } });

Again, let us evaluate the identical code in Java:

Table book = db.getTable ('Books'); .where('BookName like: bookname') .orderBy('BookName') .bind('bookname','e%') .ExecuteAsync()); Asynchronous operations by using Awaits

Few coding languages can apply an async/await arrangement. So, let us also illustrate some examples of Asynchronous operations by using Awaits,,, explained in detail below:

For code in C#:

.Where("BookName like: bookname") .OrderBy("BookName") .Bind("bookname","e%") .ExecuteAsync(); RowResult rowres = await getBookTask; Foreach(var row in rowres.FetchAll()) { }

Here, chúng tôi implements the MySQL asynchronous operations that use Promises applied for all network procedures. Let us see some other specimens:

For code in Java language:

Table book = db.getTable ("Books"); .where("BookName like: bookname") .orderBy("BookName") .bind("bookname","e%") .ExecuteAsync()); RowResult rows = rowsFuture.get();

But writing the above code for MySQL Asynchronous in C++, the asynchronous execution has not been implemented yet in C++/Connector.


Any MySQL client maintenances the X Protocol, which gives query execution in an asynchronous approach by either using Promises, callbacks,,, or by openly waiting on a definite output at the instant in time when it is truly necessary. It helps with the parallel query execution operations in the server.

However, the MySQL Shell does not support MySQL asynchronous operations.

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How Css Supports() Function Works

Introduction to CSS.supports()

The following article provides an outline for CSS.supports(). CSS @supports is defined as a support condition, also known as Feature Query, that helps to check browser support for CSS Property value and is a part of CSS3 Conditional Rules Specification used in the design work process. The condition we test should be placed inside the parenthesis; the valid code would be like if we try to use more parenthesis. The operator AND, OR helps to chain the detection of different features.

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Syntax of CSS.supports()

The CSS supports syntax is given as:

@supports (condition) { .ex { } }

Refer to the below table for the value which is defined.

chúng tôi  Value Description

1 AND Value pair combine with conjunction

2 OR It’s a disjunction

3 NOT It’s a negation

How CSS supports() Function works?

CSS support function returns a Boolean value (writing a conditional statement) specifying whether a browser supports CSS features or not. We can also perform multiple checks on the support system using AND, OR. These rules can be nested, which makes code easier while using complex queries. Ideally, Browser support for the CSS3 version is variable to have good practice on it. The detection is performed using JavaScript. To make this done with CSS Style @support function has been come in.

So, this function works well for detection even though JavaScript is disabled. Thereby when we write code, they are very well familiar with a media query.

Let’s see their working with Operators.

1. NOT Keyword

Just like checking browser support, we can also check whether the feature is supported using the operator NOT.

The sample looks like this:

@supports not (display: flex) { .aaa { Display: grid; } }

When a NOT is combined with other operators, enclosing the NOT keyword between two parentheses is unnecessary, such that parenthesis is mandatory when it is the first condition.

Let’s take an example:


@supports not (display: flex) and ((display: grid) or (display: table)) { }


@supports display: flex) or (display: table) not (display: table) { } 2. AND Keyword

This is used to check two conditions, and if both conditions are evaluated to be true, then the style statement is executed. In other terms, they are helpful for multiple required conditions.

3. OR Keyword

Disjunction type and used for multiple alternative styles. We can also use AND and OR together for testing the conditions.

Examples of CSS.supports()

Given below are examples of CSS.supports(). Below are the different scenarios where support is implemented.

Example #1

Showing NOT operator


* { box-sizing: border-box; font-family: Algeria, sans-serif; } .main { max-width: 80%; height: auto; background-color: #084F66; margin: 0 auto; padding: 0; } .city { margin: 0; padding: 0; background: linear-gradient(rgb(12, 185, 242), rgb(6, 49, 64)); } img { display: inline; width: 90%; height: auto; } @supports(mix-blend-mode: saturation) { .city img { mix-blend-mode: overlay; } } @supports not (mix-blend-mode: saturation) { .city img { opacity: 0.7; } } .aa { text-align: center; padding-top: 52px; font-size: 10px; }

Example #2

Implementation with AND Operator


@supports (display: grid) and (display: -webkit-flex) { div h1 { display: -moz-flex; justify-content: -moz-flex-start; color: purple; border: 6px solid purple; padding: 18px; font-size: 30px; } }


Example #3

Using AND operator in support of border Style


@supports (border-radius: 4px) and (box-shadow: 2px 2px 3px blue) { div h1 { border-radius:4px; box-shadow: 2px 2px 3px blue justify-content: flex-start; color: red; border: 6px solid yellow; padding: 15px; font-size: 30px; } }

Above code talks about testing Multiple properties. Here we have tested border-radius and shadow. Therefore it returns true if all of them are met.


Example #4

Support with CSS variables


section { color: green; } @supports(–css: variables) { section { –my-color: red; color: var(–my-color, ‘pink’); } } h1 { text-align: center; max-width: 500px; margin: 40px auto; }

The above code selects the section part to display the text content with a color in the browser.


Example #5

Using OR @supports function


@supports (display:grid) and (transform:rotate(20deg)){ p{ font-size: 2rem; color: orange; } } @supports (not (display:rainbow)) or (display:block){ p{ font-size: 3rem; text-shadow: 4px 4px 4px blue; } }



In this article, we have seen how to create a support function in CSS. Therefore, we conclude that CSS is a pretty good innovation. If something is not supported in the web browser, the nature of CSS is, it will simply ignore the page. Also, we have seen how to use the operators in the support system. @support function is an excellent addition to CSS Specification. Depending on the projects, we will use this rule more and better.

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How Does Tensorflow Transpose Works?

Introduction to TensorFlow Transpose

Tensorflow transpose is the method or function available in the Tensorflow library or package of the Python Machine Learning domain. Whenever we pass the input to the tensorflow model, this function helps us evaluate the transpose of the provided input. In this article, we will have a detailed look at the tensorflow transpose function, how it works, the parameters needed to pass to it, the use of the transpose function, and also have a look at its implementation along with the help of an example. Lastly, we will conclude our statement.

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What is TensorFlow transpose?

The location of the tensorflow transpose function is found in tensorflow/python/ops/ In tensorflow, the transpose function can be used by using the below-mentioned syntax –

sampleTF.transpose ( sampleValue, perm = None , name = ‘transpose’ , conjugate = False)


In the above syntax, the terminologies involved will be described in the below list –

sampleValue – It is the input value that is to be transposed. In case of the value of the conjugate is set to true, then the sampleValue dtype can have the value of either complex128 or complex64, and the sampleValue is the transposed and conjugated value.

Perm – It is the parameter that is responsible for allowing the dimensions of the input.

Returned Output – The output of the transpose function will be the matrix as per the dimensions permitted by perm[n] and corresponding to the dimensions of the input matrix. By default, the perm value is considered to be (m-1….0) when not specified. Here the value of the m is nothing but the rank of the matrix of tensorflow provided in the input. The default transpose operations are carried out on a 2-dimensional input tensor provided.

How does tensorflow transpose works?

The working of transpose is similar to the flipping of the row and column values in a diagonal manner. Let us consider one sample input matrix –

[30, 31, 32]

[ 21, 22, 23],[ 24, 25, 26],[ 27, 28, 29],[30, 31, 32]

Will be transposed to –

[ 23, 26, 29, 32]

[ 21, 24, 27, 30],[ 22, 25, 28, 31],[ 23, 26, 29, 32]

We can observe that the rows and columns are interchanged.

Tensorflow Transpose Function

Tensorflow transpose function allows you to flip the tensor matrix passed as the input. This function is defined inside the file whose directory is inside the path tensorflow/python/ops/ If you pass a matrix that contains the dimension [m, n] where m and are the number of rows and columns, respectively. Then the transpose function will flip the tensor’s input matrix, leading to the interchange of rows and columns by flipping them through a diagonal. The output matrix will be diagonal [n, m].

The transpose function can be called by using the syntax –

sampleTF.transpose(sampleValue, perm = None, name = ‘transpose’, conjugate = False)

TensorFlow Transpose Examples

Let us understand how the transpose of the input tensor works considering one sample matrix of tensorflow for input. Suppose that we call the transpose function of tensorflow by using the below statement –

sampleTFObject. Transpose (sample, perm = [1,0])

The output of either of the above two statements will lead to the conversion of the sample matrix to the following where the rows and columns are interchanged –

[[11,14], [12, 15], [13, 16]]

Let us consider one example where our input matrix will be a complex matrix involving imaginary numbers. If we set the property of conjugate to true, then it will provide us the transpose of the input matrix –

sampleTFObject. Transpose (sample, conjugate = True)

# [13 – 13j, 16 – 16j]]

Let us consider one more example where we will use perm, which helps specify the permutation of the dimensions of the tensor matrix.

[30, 31, 32]]])

We have taken a matrix of 0 dimensions which is the shorthand of ‘linalg.transpose’.

Perm value will be [0, 2, 1] [29, 32]]]

The compatibility of NumPy transpose with TensorFlow transpose is not supporting the stride functionality. The numpy transpose is the efficient operation for memory and has constant time as it gives the same output with the new view of the passed data. It just adjusts the strides in the output view.


The transpose function of tensorflow helps flip the input tensor, leading to the matrix’s interchange of rows and columns.

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How Does The Null Function Work In C++ With Examples?

Introduction to C++ null

The null function is used to assign value to the variable; this can be treated as the default value for the variable defined in many programming languages. Null functions can be used to assign value to a pointer that is not pointing to any address and contain any garbage value, so the null function will assign them a special value called ‘NULL’, which means they are now null pointer. In this topic, we are going to learn about C++ null.

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This is very simple to assign a null value to the variable in C++; we just need to do this at the time of initialization only. This variable then turns to be treated as the Null pointer. Below see the syntax to understand this better and used while programming see below;

int main () { int  *your_ptr_name = NULL; }

In the above syntax, we are using the NULL value here to assign to a pointer. First, we have to define the pointer, and then we can initialize it with NULL. Sample practice syntax for more understanding see below;

int main () { int  *myptr = NULL; } How does the null function work in C++?

As of now, we know that we use Null functions to assign some special value to the pointer variable. By the use of this, we can give them a logical value when they are not pointing to any address in the memory. That’s why it is also known as a special value to the pointer. Also, we know that pointer holds the memory address, so if we want them to point to some other value, in that case, we can use NULL here. But we have to use this while initiation of the pointer. Now we will see one example and understand its working how it actually works; for more detail, see below;


using namespace std; int main () { int  *myptr1 = NULL; int  *myptr2= NULL; int  *myptr3 = NULL; if(!myptr1) { cout << “demo value for myptr ” << myptr1 ; } return 0; }

In this example, we create three different pointers, and all of them point to the NULL here. So as we can see, we have initialized the value for the variable at the time of declaring the variables. After this, we are making one check here to check and print the value of the pointer. If the statement coming out to be right, then the print statement will be executed; otherwise, it will return. If we see it will assign a default value of ‘0’ to the pointer. So a null can be an integer value as well when it is not pointing to the memory address. In the if statement above, as you can see pointer is pointing to null, but here it got converted into Boolean false, and if the value for any of the pointers is not null, then it will convert into Boolean true.

So in this way, we can test our pointers as well. Null functions are nothing but a way to assign value to the pointer variable in c++.  We can also do dereferencing of our null pointers in c++, but this will lead to unusual behavior of the program. this is because dereferencing means go back to the previous state where it is pointing to before initiation, but if we try to do this in our code, a null pointer still points nowhere because it has no memory address attached with it.

Points to be remembered while working with the NULL functions in c++ see below;

2) If the pointer does not point to any memory address in C++, it does not point to null; we will use NULL functions to assign them value.

3) If we assign a value to a pointer using null functions, then they will convert to Boolean true or false depending on the value they are holding. This is because the null pointer can be integer also.

Examples of C++ null

Given below are the examples of C++ null:

Example #1

In this example, we will see how to initialize the null value to the pointer using the NULL function in C++; this is nothing but the special value we can assign at the time of initialization.  There is no particular syntax to do this.


using namespace std; int main () { cout<<“Demo for null functions in c++”; cout<<“n”; int  *myptr1 = NULL; int  *myptr2= NULL; int  *myptr3 = NULL; cout << “value of the first variabel is::: ” << myptr1 ; cout<<“n”; cout << “value of the second variabel is::: ” << myptr2 ; cout<<“n”; cout << “value of the third variabel is::: ” << myptr3 ; return 0; }


Example #2

In this example, we are going to see how to make a conditional statement while using a NULL pointer in your program and how they change the value while checking them. After the statement, we are assigning them a new value to the point.


using namespace std; int main () { int var1 =20; int var2 =30; int var3 =40; cout<<“Demo for null functions in c++”; cout<<“n”; int  *myptr1 = NULL; int  *myptr2= NULL; int  *myptr3 = NULL; cout<<“Value before null functions :::”; cout<<“n”; cout << “value of the first variable is before ::: ” << myptr1 ; cout<<“n”; cout << “value of the second variable is before :::” << myptr2 ; cout<<“n”; cout << “value of the third variable is before :::” << myptr3 ; if(!myptr1){ myptr1 = &var1; cout << “value after initialization is ::” ; cout<<“n”; cout << “value of the first variable is after ::: ” << myptr1 ; cout<<“n”; } if(!myptr2){ myptr2 = &var2; cout << “value after initialization is ::” ; cout<<“n”; cout << “value of the second variable is after ::: ” << myptr2 ; cout<<“n”; } if(!myptr3){ myptr3 = &var3; cout << “value after initialization is ::” ; cout<<“n”; cout << “value of the third variable is after ::: ” << 3 ; cout<<“n”; } return 0; }



Hence we can use null functions to assign value to the variable; null values are important when our pointer is not pointing to any memory address to avoid the unusual behavior while programming, so null functions or null assigning to a pointer is used to assign a default value when they are not pointing anywhere in the memory address.

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How To Use Sin Function In Excel?

SIN Function in Excel

The sin function of Excel is another mathematical function that gives the Sine value of any angle or radian value of an angle. We all know that Perpendicular mathematically calculates the Sine angle to Hypotenuse, but that provides the logic of the Sine angle. To calculate the Sin function, we need to feed the value with the radians function or multiply the angle by Pi()/180 to get the actual value.

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Basic Trigonometric Function

So, to solve the trigonometric function, Sine provides the SIN function, which is a basic trigonometric function but comes in handy, particularly if you are working in manufacturing Navigation, or Communication Industries. But it is important to note Excel uses radians, not degrees, to calculate any trigonometric expression. There are two ways of going about this:

Recall that π = 180°. So, if the angle is in degrees, multiply it by π /180° to convert it to radians. In Excel, this conversion can be written PI( )/180. For example, to convert 60° to radians, the Excel expression would be 60*PI( )/180, which equals 1.0472 radians.

Excel is also equipped with a very useful tool called RADIANS. It accepts an angle as an argument, in which the angle refers to the degrees that have to be transformed into radians. Take the instance where the expression utilized to transform 210° into radians is “RADIANS(210)”, and it evaluates to 66519 radians.

Conversely, the DEGREES utility is equally important. This function can do the exact opposite of the RADIANS function by converting radians to degrees. For example, DEGREES(PI( )/2 ) evaluates 90.

How to Use the SIN Function in Excel?

Let’s understand how to use the SIN Function in Excel by using some examples and real-life illustrations of the SIN Function in Excel.

You can download this SIN Function Excel Template here – SIN Function Excel Template

Example #1

Calculating Sine Value using SIN Function in Excel

As you can see from the above screenshot, the SIN function in Excel expects a number as an input. This number usually represents a value in radians. So, in this case, we will write “=SIN(1.0472)”, where 1.0472 is the radians equivalent of 60 degrees.

Once we do this, we will get the SIN value of 60 degrees.

Example #2

Calculating Sine Value using SIN and RADIAN Function in Excel

Now let us see how we can use SIN more effectively when we don’t know the exact radian value for a degree. We will use the RADIANS() to find the radian value, which we will pass as an argument to the SIN function. So, we start with the earlier version of the SIN( ):

Next, we will pass RADIANS(60) as an argument to the SIN function, where 60 is the degree value.

As we can see from the example above, RADIANS() accepts a value in degrees. So, we shall pass 60 as the value to RADIANS().

Then Press Enter. This yields the following result.

So, we see that the result is the same as the first example.

Example #3

Calculating Sine Value using SIN and PI Function in Excel

There is yet another way to convert a degree value to radians for our use in the SIN function. We remember from our time in school that π = 180°. So, if the angle is in degrees, multiply it by π/180° to convert it to radians. In Excel, this conversion can be written PI( )/180. For example, to convert 60° to radians, the Excel expression would be 60*PI( )/180, which equals 1.0472 radians.

We begin by writing the SIN function in the same way as above.

Next, we will directly pass 60° as the argument to the SIN function. But this wouldn’t give us the corresponding value of 60 degrees in radians. Hence we will multiply 60 by PI()/180.

This will give us the following result:

Example #4

Now, let’s look at another example showing the results of the SIN function for various values.

Explanation of the results shown in the above table:

Case 1 and 2 :

3.14 is the value of Pi, and we can use both methods to get a value of 0. This means the SIN of Pi radians is 0.

Case 3 and 4 :

Radians and Pi/180 have equal values in mathematics, and hence SIN function gives the same value. Both examples imply a SIN of 30 degrees which gives a value of 0.5.

Case 5 and 6 :

By default, SIN 45 = 0.85 is the SIN of 45 radians; excel takes all the angles in radians and not degrees. To convert it into a degree, we can use the radian function and get a SIN of 45 degrees, as shown in the last row. i.e. SIN(RADIANS(45)) = 0.707 or 0.71

Example #5

For example, we want to know the tree’s height in the figure above. We know that if we stand 76 m from the top of the tree (x = 76 m), the line of sight to the top is 32° concerning the horizon (θ = 32°).

Hence to solve for the height of the tree h, we find h= x SIN θ. We know that:

The SIN function displays the #VALUE! Error if the reference used as the function’s argument points to a cell containing text data. In the example below, the cell reference of the third-row points to the text label in Angle (Degrees). Since the SIN functions only support a number as an argument, SIN will evaluate an error, in this case, #VALUE! If the cell points to an empty cell, the function returns a zero value, as shown in the example below. Excel’s trigonometric functions interpret blank cells as zero, and the sine of zero radians equals zero.

Example #6

Suppose we find out the launch angle of a water ski ramp as in the figure above. We know that A = 3.5 m, B = 10.2 m, and b = 45.0°. Now to find a, we can use the Law of Sines. In this scenario, it can be written as:

We can re-organize this equation as follows:

Using the arcsine or inverse sine, we can find the angle α. Applying the equation shown below.

Example #7

In our final trigonometric example, we will use Excel to examine the trigonometric identity:

sin²θ + cos²θ = 1

Note that in the screenshot below, this identity holds when θ is given in both radians and degrees.

Note the unit description for the angle θ is placed in different cells than the numbers. If we place the numbers and the units in the same cell, Excel will not be able to differentiate the number from the text, and therefore we will not be able to reference the cells for use in an equation, which would result in #VALUE! Error.

Things to Remember

Remember that the Excel SIN function works with Radian by default.

Convert the number required in Radian or Degree using the RADIANS or DEGREES functions.

You can use the PI() function to get the exact results of the SIN function while working with π.

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