Trending October 2023 # How To Choose A Linux Distro Without Trying All Of Them # Suggested November 2023 # Top 10 Popular |

Trending October 2023 # How To Choose A Linux Distro Without Trying All Of Them # Suggested November 2023 # Top 10 Popular

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With many hundreds of Linux distros available, it’s often a challenge for a new user to find the distro that best suits their needs. Which one is best for gaming? Office and productivity? Hardware compatibility? Servers? Homemade routers? Well today, we’ll be walking through some important considerations and discussing how to choose a Linux distro without trying them all.

1. What Do You Need the Distro for?

The most important factor when choosing a Linux distro is what you need it for – e.g. work, fun, occasional browsing, enhanced security, multimedia, etc. There are distros for each of these purposes and many more. If you want to check which distros are available for a particular purpose, the place to do so is on DistroWatch.

Navigate to the “Distribution Category” search filter. There are quite a few good options available to you, so if you have a very specific use case, that’s a great place to look.

2. What Kind of Software Will You Be Using?

This is essentially your use case. If you have a specific piece of software that you’ll be using that you need a particular version of, that will influence your distro choice. If you’re a standard desktop user, you’ll probably want regular updates to get new versions of things like Firefox and Chrome. If you’re a gamer, you’ll probably want the latest and greatest kernel to get access to better hardware compatibility. If you’re just using basic software like OpenSSH or Nginx for a server, you’ll probably not mind having older versions of that software – as long as it doesn’t get too many updates and move slowly.

3. What Kind of Hardware Will You Be Using?

If your computer is more powerful and has newer hardware, then you can run almost any distro you like. However, if it is old, this could limit your choices. Depending on its age and specs, your choice may boil down to just a dozen distros made especially for old computers. Typically, these distros for old computers are lightweight and don’t offer everything you can think of but are still a decent choice for most everyday tasks and beyond.

4. How Much Experience With Computers Do You Have?

This may seem obvious, but it’s very important. If you have tons of experience with computers from a technician perspective, you’d be a better fit for a different distro than someone who has very surface-level experience with computers. Additionally, if you have a lot of experience with one particular platform or another, you may want to look at a distro that mimics that workflow. A great example is that as a former macOS user, elementaryOS looks and feels very comfortable and familiar for me.

5. What Kind of Community Are You Looking For?

I hope that’s all helpful information in your quest to find your forever distro (or at least the distro that holds you for a little while). Make sure to check out some of our distro reviews to get started, like openSUSE, MX Linux, Clear Linux, GhostBSD, and EndeavourOS.

John Perkins

John is a young technical professional with a passion for educating users on the best ways to use their technology. He holds technical certifications covering topics ranging from computer hardware to cybersecurity to Linux system administration.

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Doudoulinux: A Fun Linux Distro For Kids

Linux is really a versatile piece of software. You can use it as your daily working OS, a server that runs most of the website in the world, as a multimedia center or even as a way to promote your religion. A more creative use of Linux is to turn it into an educational piece of software for kids. We have gone through several ways of configuring Linux for kids. DoudouLinux is yet another Linux distro that you will want to check out.

We have recently reviewed Qimo, another distro for kids. The main differences between Qimo and DoudouLinux is that DoudouLinux doesn’t require any installation. It comes in the form of a LiveCD (or USB key). You simply plug it into any PC and start using it immediately. That is also the purpose of the distro: allow children to use the computer anytime, anywhere, without the risk of damaging data already stored in the machine.

Using DoudouLinux

To get it working, you have to download the LiveCD (.iso file) or the USB key image (.img file) and burn it into a CD/USB drive. Once that is done, all you need to do is to boot your PC from the CD/USB drive.

On starting up, you will see two choices on the screen: “Start DoudouLinux” and “Start DoudouLinux without persistence“. With or without persistence will determine whether the configuration, settings and data are saved during shutdown.

In the usual login screen, you will see a list of games that the kid can quickly access (While there is a login field at the bottom of the screen, you don’t really have to login at all).

Pysycache is a series of games that teach the kids how to use the mouse. It can be as simple as wiggling the mouse across the screen to reveal the underneath image or to drag an object and drop it at the correct place.

Childsplay, TuxPaint and Gcompris are popular educational software that need no further introduction here.

If you choose to login to the desktop session, you also have a choice of Tiny DoudouLinux or the Whole DoudouLinux. The Tiny DoudouLinux session is a streamlined version that includes more games and the ability to make some system adjustment like volume, sound and mouse settings.

The whole DoudouLinux session will include applications like browser, media player, terminal, file manager etc.


It is always interesting to see how Linux is used in various aspect of our life. DoudouLinux is definitely one of such interesting project that deserved to be commended. It is dead easy to use, so let your kids try it out and let us know if he/she likes it or not.


Damien Oh started writing tech articles since 2007 and has over 10 years of experience in the tech industry. He is proficient in Windows, Linux, Mac, Android and iOS, and worked as a part time WordPress Developer. He is currently the owner and Editor-in-Chief of Make Tech Easier.

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How To Take A Screenshot Of The Login Screen In Linux

There are a couple of ways to get that illusive screenshot, though. One is much easier than the other, but it doesn’t allow you to capture your customized screen. The second option is more involved, but it can grab a shot of just about any login screen. Whichever way you choose, it’s entirely possible to take full resolution images of your Linux login screen.

Virtual Machines

Before you get into this process, it’s much easier to just take a screenshot of a virtual machine. If you’re running virtual machines on your system, especially if you’re using virt-manager or VirtualBox, you can easily take a screenshot using the utilities built in to those applications. There really isn’t a need to go any deeper.

With a Script

Warning: This method does not work with any system running Wayland.  As of now, that includes a lot of distributions running GNOME, including Ubuntu. If you have GNOME and Wayland, the virtual machine method is best.

There is a way to take a screenshot of the login screen from within the same system, though. It’s just a bit more involved, and you need to write a short script to do it. This guide assumes that you’re using some variant of Ubuntu or Debian, but you can certainly adapt it to other systems. All of this is fairly universal.

Install ImageMagick

The script that you’re going to write requires a common application called ImageMagick. It’s so common that it might already be installed on your system. Either way, try installing it before you do anything else.




imagemagick Create Your Script

Now that you have ImageMagick, you can create your script. It’s relatively short, and it’s designed to use ImageMagick to take a screenshot of a specific application. In this case, it’s your login manager. On current Ubuntu and Debian systems, that login manager is GDM.

Open the text editor of your choosing and create a new file for your script. You can name it anything, just give it the “.sh” extension. Make that file look like the example below.

#! /bin/bash
















.Xauth xwd


If you’re using an Ubuntu system that’s still using Unity, or you’re on a different desktop environment, you probably have the LightDM manager instead. The script for that one looks a bit different.

#! /bin/bash




















That’s it. Save your file and exit. Before you can run your file, make sure that’s executable.


+x chúng tôi the Shot

Unfortunately, you can’t just run that script. You need to make sure that the login screen is up, and still have access to a terminal. There are a couple of ways to do that. If you’d prefer SSH, you probably already know what to do. If not, you can follow these steps.

1. First, log out. Once you see the login screen, press Ctrl + Alt + F1. That will take you to the terminal.

2. Now that you’re in the terminal, log in to your user account. Then, change into the directory with your script and run it.

Convert the Format

The last step of this process requires that you convert the file format to something more usable. ImageMagick has you covered there. It has built-in commands to help you convert the image. Remember to change the ownership of the image first.



user:user login-screensh.xwd

Now, press Ctrl + Alt + F7 to return to your normal desktop. You’ll find your converted screenshot in the same directory where you created your script.

Nick Congleton

Nick is a freelance tech. journalist, Linux enthusiast, and a long time PC gamer.

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Steam: How To Choose Which Monitor A Game Opens On

Steam: How to Choose which Monitor a Game opens on Learn to configure your games to start on your preferred monitor




Many online games are better off played on ultrawide monitors or multi-monitor setups.

This guide will show you how you can launch your games on the secondary monitor by default.

We have a dedicated guide on how to open certain games on another monitor, such as Overwatch and Fortnite.

You can also find out how to change which monitor Steam opens games on by default.



To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

Fortect has been downloaded by


readers this month.

Multi-monitor setups are very common nowadays, especially when you are an avid gamer.

These can sometimes replace the need to buy ultra-wide and curved monitors, and they also allow you to multitask while gaming.

However, whenever you launch a game, the default setting is to make it appear on your primary monitor.

If for some reason you want to make your games launch on your other monitors, then all you need to do is follow the steps written in the guide below.

How can I change which monitor a game opens on? 1. Use a dedicated multi-monitor management tool

Before proceeding with any of the solutions and workarounds listed in this article, the first thing you should consider is the use of a dedicated multi-monitor management tool.

These tools usually allow you to perform all manner of desktop enhancements and modifications in a fast and simple manner.

In the case at hand, playing your games on other monitors other than your primary one can be easily achieved with DisplayFusion.

This software tool is an extremely lightweight multi-monitor management tool that will allow you to increase your productivity and the number of things you can do when using your setup.

Here are some of the perks of using DisplayFusion:

Create customizable hotkeys

Enable multi-monitor taskbars

Enable multi-monitor title bar buttons.

Its has a trial version that lasts indefinitely

Customize the way your setup displays your favorite wallpaper

⇒Check out our DisplayFusion Review for more information.

2. How to change which monitor Steam plays games on


Besides using dedicated multi-monitor software tools, there are also tricks and workarounds that you can use to make games run on your secondary monitors.

You can force Steam to open a game on the monitor of your choice in various methods, depending on your preferences.

1. Run the game in Windowed mode and drag it to the screen you want.

If you don’t know how to run Steam games in Windowed mode, follow the steps from our in-depth guide.

2. Set the second monitor as a primary monitor in Windows.

If your second monitor is not detected, try the troubleshooting steps from our dedicated article.

3. Run the game in borderless windowed mode and use Shift+Win+Arrow Right to move it to the right.

Do note that this method might leave a gap the size of your taskbar on the secondary monitor.

For example, if you want Steam to open the game with the monitor that’s assigned via Windows settings to be your first, use this command: -sdl_displayindex 0

5. Lastly, some games allow you to choose a monitor when in fullscreen or borderless windowed mode.

3. Make CS: GO open on different monitor

Since Counter-Strike; Global Offensive is exclusively a Steam game, all of the methods presented above will work just as well with CS: GO.

4. Make Fortnite open on another monitor

Run the game in Windowed mode and drag it to the screen you want.

Unlike Steam games, you can easily switch Fortnite from fullscreen to windowed mode from the video settings.  Once you’ve done that, simply mode the windows to a second monitor.

However, if you want to play Fortnite in fullscreen mode you secondary monitor, your only choice is to set the second monitor as a primary monitor in Windows.

5. Make Overwatch open on a different monitor

Similarly to the first two solutions, this Blizzard title can also be launched on a secondary monitor if you use the following two methods:

Play Overwatch it in Windowed or Borderless Windowed mode and simply drag it to the secondary screen.

Turn your secondary screen into a primary screen and set it as a priority from when launching Overwatch.

By following the right steps or by using the right tools, you should be able to play your favorite games from your secondary monitor, while still using the primary one to perform other tasks.

Still experiencing issues?

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All You Need To Know About Processes In Linux

If you’re a user of Linux, you’ve probably heard term “process” thrown around a lot. But what exactly are processes in Linux, and how do they work? In this article, we’ll take a deep dive into everything you need to know about processes in Linux.

What are processes in Linux?

In simple terms, a process is a program that is currently executing on your Linux system. Each process has its own unique process ID (PID), which is used to identify and manage it. Every time you run a program on your Linux system, a new process is created to run that program. This process runs independently of other processes, allowing multiple programs to run simultaneously.

How do processes work in Linux?

Processes in Linux work in a hierarchical structure, with each process having a parent process and potentially having child processes. init process is parent process for all other processes on your system. When you run a program on your system, a new process is created with init process as its parent.

Each process has its own address space, which is used to store code and data for that process. This address space is isolated from other processes, preventing one process from accessing another process’s memory. kernel manages this isolation by using memory protection mechanisms.

Process states in Linux

Processes in Linux can be in one of several states −

Running − process is currently running and executing instructions.

Sleeping − process is waiting for some event to occur, such as waiting for user input or waiting for data from a file.

Stopped − process has been stopped by a signal and is not currently executing any instructions.

Zombie − process has completed execution but has not yet been reaped by its parent process.

Managing processes in Linux

There are several commands in Linux that you can use to manage processes −


This command displays a list of currently running processes on your system. You can use ps aux command to display a more detailed list of processes, including process ID, CPU usage, and memory usage.

kill top

This command displays a real-time view of processes running on your system, including CPU and memory usage. This command is useful for monitoring system performance.

htop sudo apt-get install htop pstree

pstree is a command that displays a hierarchical view of processes running on your system. It displays processes in a tree-like structure, with init process at root and child processes branching out from it. This command can be useful for visualizing relationships between processes on your system.


killall is a command that allows you to kill processes by name instead of by process ID. This can be useful when you need to terminate multiple processes with a single command. For example, to terminate all instances of firefox browser, you can run following command −

killall firefox nice

nice is a command that allows you to set priority of a process. Processes with a higher priority will be given more CPU time, while processes with a lower priority will be given less CPU time. This command can be useful for managing system performance and ensuring that critical processes are given higher priority. For example, to set priority of a process to a lower value, you can run following command −

Examples of managing processes in Linux

Let’s take a look at some examples of managing processes in Linux using commands we just discussed.

Example 1: Using ps to display a list of running processes

To display a list of running processes on your system, you can use ps command. For example, to display a list of all running processes, you can run following command −


This will display a list of running processes on your system, including process ID and other information.

Example 2: Using kill to terminate a process

If you need to terminate a process, you can use kill command. For example, to terminate a process with a specific process ID, you can run following command −

Example 3: Using top to monitor system performance

To monitor system performance, you can use top command. This command displays a real-time view of processes running on your system, including CPU and memory usage. For example, to display a real-time view of processes running on your system, you can run following command −


This will display a real-time view of processes running on your system, sorted by CPU usage.

One more important aspect of processes in Linux is process signals. Signals are a way for kernel to communicate with processes and notify them of various events. For example, a signal can be used to terminate a process or to interrupt a process to handle a critical event.

There are several signals that can be sent to processes in Linux, each with its own specific purpose. Some of most commonly used signals include −

SIGTERM − This signal is used to terminate a process gracefully. When a process receives this signal, it is given a chance to clean up its resources before exiting.

SIGKILL − This signal is used to forcibly terminate a process. When a process receives this signal, it is immediately terminated without any chance to clean up its resources.

SIGHUP − This signal is used to notify a process that its parent process has terminated. When a process receives this signal, it is typically expected to terminate as well.

SIGINT − This signal is used to interrupt a process. It is typically sent when user presses Ctrl+C in terminal to interrupt a running process.

To send a signal to a process in Linux, you can use kill command, followed by process ID and signal number. For example, to send a SIGTERM signal to a process with a process ID of 1234, you can run following command −

kill -TERM 1234

This will send a SIGTERM signal to process with a process ID of 1234, asking it to terminate gracefully.

In addition to signals we discussed earlier, Linux also supports user-defined signals. User-defined signals can be used to implement custom communication between processes or to handle specific events within a process.


Processes are an essential part of Linux operating system, allowing multiple programs to run simultaneously on a single system. Understanding how processes work and how to manage them is crucial for maintaining system performance and stability. By using commands we discussed in this article, you can effectively manage processes on your Linux system.

How To Restart A Frozen Desktop In Linux

While Linux has a reputation for being stable, able to keep chugging along for years, there are times when the desktop will just freeze and stop responding to input. One of the most common fixes for a frozen desktop is to restart the PC. An easier way is to just restart the desktop.

Let’s see how to do this on five of the most popular desktop environments in Linux: Gnome, KDE, XFCE, LXQt and MATE. We are using Ubuntu (Kubuntu/Xubuntu/Lubuntu/Ubuntu MATE) for this illustration.

Restart Gnome in Ubuntu

If your desktop can still respond to your keyboard, press Alt + F2, type the single letter r on the pop-up window, and press Enter.

This will restart your desktop environment without much fuss. If your desktop doesn’t respond to your input, though, you will have to take more drastic measures.

Press Ctrl + Alt + F3 to access the first terminal outside of your desktop environment.

Enter the following command to restart the Gnome desktop environment:



Press Ctrl + Alt + F2 to move back to the desktop and, if everything goes according to plan, a refreshed version of your desktop will be waiting for you.

If that doesn’t work, you can try restarting the display manager. Since the display manager is the “base” on which the desktop environment runs, by restarting it, you also end up reloading the desktop environment. To do that, go back to the terminal and enter the following:

Restart KDE in Kubuntu

Restarting the KDE desktop environment follows the same approach as Gnome, but there are small differences in the individual steps you have to take.

In Kubuntu, the first available terminal outside your desktop environment is TTY3, so you will have to use the Ctrl + Alt + F3 combination to get there.

In the latest versions of KDE, the proper way to restart the desktop from the terminal is:

kquitapp5 plasmashell


kstart5 plasmashell

If that doesn’t work, you can also try:




If that fails as well, it will be worth a try to restart the display manager itself as a last option before rebooting your whole PC. Try it with:




Note, though, that this forced restart of the desktop environment may also lead to the appearance of some error messages.

Restart XFCE in Xubuntu

With XFCE being a much simpler desktop environment than Gnome and KDE, restarting it is also easier.

The primary desktop element of XFCE – and the most probable to freeze – is its panel. If your desktop is still somewhat responsive, restart it by firing up a terminal with the Ctrl + Alt + T combination and typing:



This command will “kill” the panel. To reload it, enter:




To restart the whole window manager, move to the first available terminal outside of your desktop. On the Xubuntu installation, it was the first one, accessible with the Ctrl + Alt + F2 combination. There, try the official approach:



If that doesn’t work, try the more forceful approach:







Hopefully, your desktop will be back up and running, waiting for you.

Restart LXQt in Lubuntu

LXQt is a simple desktop environment that aims to work with small, lightweight machines. Similar to XFCE, reloading this desktop environment mostly consists of restarting its panel.

This will display a prompt where you can provide the details for your shortcut. To create a Terminal launcher, write /bin/bash in the “Command” field and toggle the “Terminal” option.

qdbus org.lxqt.session


LXQtSession stopModule lxqt-panel.desktop qdbus org.lxqt.session


LXQtSession startModule lxqt-panel.desktop

On the other hand, it is also possible to reload the entire LXQt desktop. This is handy if you cannot access any of the environment’s features through the graphical interface.

Press Ctrl + Alt + F3 to drop to a TTY shell, then run the following command to fully restart LXQt:


systemctl restart sddm Restart MATE in Ubuntu MATE

MATE is a flexible desktop environment that aims to continue the GNOME2 design language. To restart this environment, open a Terminal window by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T.

Run the following commands to fully reload MATE:








It can be useful to fully reset the MATE desktop in instances where you want to undo a system configuration that can potentially break your system.

Similar to other desktop environments, do this by dropping to a TTY, then run the following command:



Restart the Xorg Server

Restarting the entire Xorg server instead of your specific desktop environment is useful if you want to restart your display and are either running without a display manager or using a window manager such as bspwm.

To restart Xorg, you need to drop to your TTY. Press Ctrl + Alt + F3.

Send a SIGTERM signal to the main Xorg process by running the following command:

pkill X

Xorg will immediately stop and restart itself in your machine. Go back to your graphical interface by pressing Ctrl + Alt + F1.

Frequently Asked Questions Does a desktop restart corrupt any files that I am working on?

Luckily, no. The standard Linux filesystem works in a way that it can tolerate abrupt system changes, as most files in your machine can preserve some data about their state before the restart. While data corruption is less likely in Linux, it is still possible to lose data that only exists in your machine’s memory. You need to make sure that you have saved everything you’re currently doing to disk before attempting any desktop restart.

Is it possible to use a different TTY to restart a desktop?

Yes! By default, the Linux kernel supports up to six virtual terminal sessions at the same time, which is useful if you want to run a process while trying to restart your GUI environment. To access these extra TTYs, press Ctrl + Alt followed by any key between F2 and F8.

Is it still possible to restart a frozen system if you cannot use the TTY?

Yes! One option is to use Linux’s Magic SysRq Keycodes. These are hidden key combinations that allow you to access some of the kernel’s debugging tools. To restart your system by force, press Alt + SysRq + R, then Alt + SysRq + B. Doing this will switch your kernel’s keyboard driver to “Raw,” then trigger a “Force Reboot” instruction.

Image credit: Simone Pellegrini via Unsplash. All screenshots by Ramces Red.

Ramces Red

Ramces is a technology writer that lived with computers all his life. A prolific reader and a student of Anthropology, he is an eccentric character that writes articles about Linux and anything *nix.

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