Trending October 2023 # Lagging Indicators: Meaning, Types, Examples, Pros & Cons # Suggested November 2023 # Top 13 Popular |

Trending October 2023 # Lagging Indicators: Meaning, Types, Examples, Pros & Cons # Suggested November 2023 # Top 13 Popular

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Lagging Indicators Definition

Lagging indicators are variables, such as interest rates, profits, etc., that help analyze the market after the occurrence of a significant economic or financial event. For example, the increasing interest rates can indicate that the economy is in inflation. As a countermeasure, the government increases the interest rates.

They are essential corporate operations and strategy tools and can indicate asset acquisition/disposition in financial markets. They can also determine the direction of the economy in general. The unemployment rate, corporations’ profits, and labor cost per unit of output are some indicators.

Key Highlights

Lagging indicators describe recent economic actions, occurrences, or developments and aid in detecting long-term trends or patterns.

These indicators can be business indicators (used for performance evaluation) or technical indicators (used to comprehend changes in market prices).

The most common examples are the unemployment rate, corporate profit reports, and GDP.

While a leading indicator anticipates outcomes and events in the future, a lagging indicator evaluates whether the desired result has occurred in the past.

Examples of Lagging Indicators Example #1: Trading

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Example #2: Economics Example #3: Safety

The chemical industry XYZ has frequent employee injuries while using a particular chemical. Therefore, considering the frequency rate of injuries as a lagging indicator, the company implements additional safety measures in using that chemical.

Types of Lagging Indicators #1 The Unemployment Rate

If the unemployment rate is low, fewer individuals are looking for work, and more people have been out of work for an extended period.

It indicates that the nation is experiencing poor economic performance.

#2 Corporate Profit Reports

Corporate Profit Reports are regarded as lagging economic indicators because the data only provides a retrospective look at the performance of the private sector.

The private sector development and its influence can be measured by how the CPR figures alter over time in connection to the state of the economy.

#3 Interest Rates

Interest rates are indicators that primarily concern the inflation rate. Thus, it may be an indicator of rising or declining inflation.

The government changes, i.e., increases or decreases interest rates depending upon the nation’s inflation rate.

Indicators for Business

Lagging indicators are key operational indicators (KPIs).

They use variables such as sales, customer satisfaction, and revenue churn for computations.

Businesses employ various tools to assess, monitor, and evaluate performance indicators. 

As at least some of them result from business decisions and operations, they provide an understanding of how businesses operate.

Personal factors cannot easily affect these indicators.

Lagging Indicators in Trading

Technical indicators assess the current price of an asset after a specific price movement has occurred. It measures the value of a variable concerning its own moving average over a given period.

#1 Moving Averages (MA)

The Moving Averages depend and move on past information. When the price level exceeds this average or when two levels cross one another, it generates indications like buy and sell.

It is calculated based on previous price events, which maintains the current market price.

#2 The Moving Average Convergence Divergence Indicator

As a trend-following indicator, the Moving Average Convergence Divergence works on the MA concept.

Users of this tool must manage three elements: a histogram, and two MAs, one of which is the signal line while the other is the MACD line.

The sole distinction is that these indicators only produce signals when two lines intersect while the trend is still in action.

#3 Bollinger Bands

These rely on two outer lines and a 20-day simple moving average as the main input.

The former displays both positive and negative SMA standard deviations.

The same gauges market volatility. The bands get wider as the market becomes more unpredictable.

Difference Between Lagging vs. Leading Indicators

Limitations of Lagging Indicators

Lagging indicators require time to measure since they track long-term trends.

Since they are reactionary, indicators that are lagging are not ideal indicators when it comes to preventing problems.

Although lagging indications are simpler to spot, they don’t reflect the present trend.

Final Thoughts

A lagging indicator is a sign that is proven correct after a substantial change. Thus, they confirm long-term trends but cannot predict them. It is feasible to ensure the presence of a change in the economy by examining these indicators. They also play a big part in safety and are crucial statistics in the trading and commercial sectors.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Answer: In the safety aspect, a lagging indicator measures the effectiveness of the existing safety measures. They usually analyze the frequency and severity of past unfortunate events. They then help strategize any changes in those current measures. OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) uses indicators like injury severity, rate of fatalities, and more.

Answer: Yes, we can use inflation as a lagging indicator. It is the rise in prices of products/services in an economy. Thus, there has been an increase in product demand, leading to a surge in prices. It can also signify economic growth.

Answer: While these serve as key performance indicators (KPIs) in the business world, industrial units employ them to comprehend the trends in mishaps that have happened in the past due to a lack of safety precautions. Therefore, businesses take steps to raise safety standards. Additionally, these indicators are essential for the stock market since they enable traders to verify the current asset values before entering a deal.

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Indian Womenswear: Meaning And Types

In the last few decades, the number of working women has increased substantially, which eventually has increased women’s disposable income. As a result of this, it has driven the womenswear market segment. Fast fashion and globalisation have made people more aware of current fashion trends. According to projections, the market for women’s clothing is currently valued at about Rs 1,02,358 crore, and it would increase by 11% by 2025. It would not only be constrained by the size of the market, but it would also result in a paradigm change from non-branded to branded and from ethnic clothing to western wear. In India, it is anticipated that between 2025 and 2030, the market for women’s clothing may surpass that for men’s clothing.

Different Styles of Indian Womenswear

Indian women’s wear can be classified into various styles.


The Indus Valley culture is where the classic wrap-and-round attire known as the saree began. It’s one of the most well-known Indian clothing styles. There are 80 different types of classical drapery sarees available throughout the subcontinent, not just one, such as the Malayali style, Odi styles, Kodagu styles, and Bengali outfits without pleats, etc.

Choli Ghagra

This outfit, also known as a lehenga choli, comprises of a long pleated skirt, a typically cropped choli, and a scarf or dupatta. It is still one of the most popular outfits for women.


Another variation of the lehenga choli is the lancha. The skirts and choli styles are what differentiate them. The choli typically extends past the lehenga’s waistline when worn with the lancha outfit. Given that the waist is covered by the lancha, it is a more modest outfit. Lanchas were traditionally worn by Mughal royalty, and they continue to play a significant role in wedding, bridal, and festive attire today.

Kurta Dhoti

Dhotis are the traditional men’s garb in the Indian subcontinent. A historically male-only item of clothing has now undergone a modern makeover and gained enormous popularity as a choice for women’s clothing. Many Indian men prefer the stitched type of dhoti over the earlier draping version because it is more comfortable to wear during the day or at night. Dhoti has continued to appear on runways in recent years, further solidifying its position as a key element of Indian women’s clothing.

Suit Salwar

Among all the several styles of Indian clothing, the salwar kameez is the most comfortable. Salwar, kameez, and dupatta are worn together. A salwar has an ankle-tapering shape and clings closely around the waist like a loose, pleated pyjama. The upper portion of the dress, known as the kameez, is worn over the salwar and is typically knee-length or longer these days.

Suit Anarkali

The anarkali outfit consists of a long, flared kurta with fitted churidar pants. Anarkali dresses are fitted up to just above the waist and then flare out to the knees. One of those styles of Indian clothing that has recently made a resurgence after decades is the anarkali. The contemporary styles are floor-length gowns. In addition to being comfy, it typically has a royal and elegant appearance. Anarkali suits come in a variety of contemporary styles, such as jacket, cape, tiered, floor-length, and gown.


The churidar can be worn with frock-style kurtis as well as other kurtis, including A-line, front-cut, short, and long-length kurtis. Churidars are trousers that are longer than the length of the legs; the excess length folds at the ankles and resembles bangles (churi), hence the name. This is yet another Mughal-era outfit that Pakistani Punjabi ladies frequently wore before the division. Today, it is worn all over Pakistan and India.

Women’s Sherwani

A sherwani was invented during the Mughal Empire and was worn by royalty and noblemen. However, sherwanis have also been fashionable for women in recent years. Silk, cotton, cotton silk, chanderi, net, chiffon, georgette, tussar, velvet, and a variety of other fabrics are available for sherwani outfits. This outfit is a must-try for you if you want to dress differently than in a suit or saree. One of the more recent styles of Indian clothing,

Indo-Western Suits

There are many other styles of Indian clothing that are popular nowadays, such as palazzos and pantsuits, which combine Indian and western fashion. Kurtis worn with loose-fitting pleated pants are known as palazzo outfits. The latest kurti fashions come in a variety of cuts, including A-line, long, short, off-the-shoulder, and more. Fitted pants or trousers worn with various kurtis are referred to as pantsuits. In addition to these, cropped pants, boot-cut pants, and cigarette pants are also popular. Typically, a dupatta is not worn with Indo-Western outfits.

Indian Gowns

Another outfit with western influences is the Indian gown, which is typically worn with a dupatta and is adorned with Indian surface work. These days, you can get gowns in a variety of styles, and over the past ten years, gowns have grown in popularity as a form of Indian clothing. For instance, dresses with off-the-shoulder, one-shoulder, bell sleeves, saree-inspired designs, and more.

Suits by Sharara and Garara

We frequently mix shararas and ghararas due to their similar appearances. Both have Mughal roots. They originate from Lucknow, where the majority of the wearers were Muslim women. These garments are also commonly worn as bridal attire by Pakistani brides. The gharara and sharara outfits are made up of flared pants known as the gharara or sharara and a dupatta. Kurtis can be long, mid-length, or short.


India’s market for women’s clothing is quickly becoming one with significant growth potential. It is predicted that it will expand faster than menswear in the nation. E-commerce is becoming a significant buying option due to the growing popularity of the Internet, the growing spending power of women, great brand awareness, and strong fashion sense. The emergence of branded and expensive inner wear is mostly due to the online market. Women are now willing to take fashion risks. In addition to considering value, they are also considering brand when considering options. As a result, it is accurate to predict that the Indian women’s clothing market will see some significant changes soon.

Textile Design: Meaning And Types

Textile design requires both a technical understanding and a fashion sense. Textile artists make works of art using a variety of garments and materials. The world of colour, patterns, treatments, formation, and perspective is at their feet. Anything made of yarn, textiles, or fibres is a textile. They require strength, flexibility, abrasion resistance, and moisture control qualities in order to be useful. Textiles are occasionally employed in protective items including bulletproof vests, army helmets, and butchers’ cut-resistant gloves. Examples of textiles include the carpeting on a school’s floor, the scrubs worn by nurses and doctors, and the sound-absorbing wall coverings in a theatre.

Meaning of Textile Design

The craft of textile design requires both artistic talent and an in-depth understanding of fabrics. In this industry, having an eye for design isn’t enough because how a print looks on a certain fabric also has a big impact on how clothes are made. A distinctive print or surface pattern is vital for brand identity for many fashion firms, and textile design is a crucial component of the manufacturing process. Every area of the fashion industry, from wholesale clothing to high-end collections, uses surface design. Using a textile designer’s abilities is a fantastic way for a fashion firm to expand its product line and stand out from the competition.

The process of designing patterns to be printed on woven, knitted, or other forms of fabrics is at the heart of the highly creative field known as textile design. Pattern creation and production management are both aspects of the discipline of textile design. A superior eye for colour, pattern, and texture as well as an appreciation for the finer points of textiles and fashion are all qualities shared by textile designers. They are also talented artists who can draw. They comprehend textile processes, are strong communicators, have problem-solving abilities, like a challenge, and are able to keep to a budget and timeline while also recognising changes in trends and fashion.

Who is a Textile Designer?

An individual who creates designs for woven, knitted, or printed materials for use in apparel and interior design is known as a textile designer. They can employ the designs they come up with for unique lines or, more often than not, repetitive manufacturing. Due to financial limitations, small firms frequently ignore this style of design.

However, by spending money on design work specifically suited to your business, you will stand out from the tens of thousands of mainstream designs currently available to consumers.

Types of Textile Design

There are many various industries where textile designers can be found, including fashion, the arts, and technology. Home products and the apparel or clothing sector are two common uses for textile design. It becomes clear that these textile industries are extremely different when you give them any thought. On your beds or curtains, you might adore a big, vibrant flowery pattern, but you probably wouldn’t want to put it on your clothes. As a result, while some textile designers produce fabrics and print patterns for garment fabric, others focus on designs for the home. Designers of various media, particularly those of clothes and interiors, collaborate with textile designers in this work.

In the creation of textiles and printed patterns for high fashion or more affordable ready-to-wear styles, some textile designers work in tandem with fashion designers. They might create a wide range of possibilities, such as floral or geometric patterns or vintage prints that harken back to earlier fashion trends. Some patterns may include making patterns or repetitions of the same motifs that cover the entire fabric. Drawings for patterns used in kitchens, baths, or other living spaces may be created by textile designers for use in interior design. They may be striving for certain colour schemes or for unified atmospheres that are striking, soothing, or inspired by nature. The three main disciplines of printed textile design, woven textile design, and mixed media textile design further divide the field of textile design. These three disciplines each employ a unique set of techniques to create a surface-adorned fabric with a variety of applications and markets.

Printed Textile Design

Application of various printing technologies to fabric, cloth, and other media results in printed textile designs. The three main disciplines of textile design are printed textile design, woven textile design, and mixed media textile design. For each, a surface embellished fabric is produced using a different technique, such as resist printing, relief printing, rotogravure, screen printing, transfer printing, or digital printing. These procedures imprint appealing, frequently repeated patterns, motifs, and designs onto the fabric or cloth using a variety of inks and dyes.

The fashion and apparel sectors, the paper business, and home interior design are all primarily and intimately linked by printed textile designers, who create patterns for carpets, wallpaper, and even ceramics.

Woven Textile Design

The art of weaving involves interlacing two yarns—a vertical thread (warp) and a horizontal yarn (weft), most frequently at right angles—to create fabric. A mechanical or computerised jacquard loom is now the most common form of loom used to generate woven textile designs. A stylized patterned or monochromatic fabric is constructed using different types of yarns with variations in texture, size, and colour. Designs are created within the context of weaving. The designer has access to a wide variety of yarn types, including but not limited to cotton, twill, linen, and synthetic fibres.

The designer first defines and visualises the threading sequence, which is customarily drawn out on graph paper known as “point paper,” in order to create the woven fabric.

Mixed Media Textile Design

Utilizing embroidery or other fabric manipulation techniques, including pleating, appliqué, quilting, and laser cutting, mixed media textile designs are created.

Traditionally, embroidery has been done by hand using numerous thread stitches to create designs and patterns on the surface of textiles. Embroidery offers the designer a great deal of artistic and aesthetic control, much like printed textile design. Quilting, which is typically employed to improve a textile’s insulation and warmth, gives the designer the chance to incorporate aesthetic elements. Typically, quilts include geometric and collage patterns made of a variety of textiles with diverse textures and


To sum up, weaving, printing, surface ornamentation, and digital design are all covered in the training of textile designers, who are also exposed to textile design studio setups, industrial facilities, and craft cluster regions across the nation. The study of the fundamental characteristics of textiles, such as ornamentation, value addition, etc., is an important component of textile design.

In textile mills and export houses, there are a variety of careers available, including working independently as a designer or entrepreneur or as a design or fabric manager for fashion designers, design studios, buying houses, handloom cooperatives, and buying agencies. The ability to use an infinite number of tools to bring the inner workings of one’s artistic imagination to life makes textile design an extremely privileged profession.

Voidable Contract: Meaning And Types

There must be a legal precedent in order to discharge an obligation because not all contracts are voidable. Finding a defect in a contract is a common way to get out of it. When both parties agree to the voiding of the contract, it is easiest to do so, and this is usually the wisest course of action. However, in certain condition, one party legally can reject to perform his or her part and declare the contract void.

What are Voidable Contracts?

The word “voidable” denotes the condition to be revoked. A voidable contract is initially believed to be legitimate and binding, but if flaws are found, one party may reject it. If a party having the power to reject the contract elects not to do so despite the defect, the contract continues to be valid and enforceable. In most cases, entering a voidable contract only harms one of the parties since that party doesn’t recognise the other party’s dishonesty or fraud.

A formal agreement between two parties that is voidable under several legal theories is known as a voidable contract. These theories include −

A party or parties failing to disclose a key fact

An error, a false statement, or a swindle.

Force or undue influence.

The legal inability of one party to engage in a contract (e.g., a minor).

At least one or more offensive terms.

A breach of the contract.

Voidable Contracts Based on Formation Defects

If a contract was not created in accordance with the law, it can be void. Basically, for a contract to be enforceable in court −

Offer and Acceptance

Free consent

Legal object


Legal capacity.

Voidable Contracts Under the Indian Contract Act, 1872

A voidable agreement is one that is legal as long as one or both parties can opt to void it, according to Section 2(i) of the Indian Contract Act, 1872. In the majority of circumstances where a contract is voidable, one of the parties did not give their consent. As a result, the contract is only enforceable if both parties agree to its conditions; otherwise, it is void. An important factor in deciding whether a contract is voidable at either party’s discretion is whether coercion, fraud, undue influence, and other factors were present.

Types of Voidable Contracts

Basically, there are three categories of voidable contracts −

Initially Voidable Contracts

The Indian Contract Act, 1872, addresses agreements established through coercion, fraud, or dishonesty under Section 19. According to this clause, a contract entered into by the parties without the consent of any party or consent obtained by duress, fraud, or deception is voidable at the discretion of the party whose consent was obtained in this manner. The individual whose consent was obtained by fraud or deception must be placed in the same situation as they would have been in if the misrepresentation made to them had been true if they want the contract to continue.

There are two exceptions to the aforementioned clause, namely −

The contract is not stated to be voidable if the party whose assent was produced by silence on a fact or by misrepresentation, which is claimed to be fraudulent under Section 17 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, and the party has adequate means of learning the truth in the normal course of events,

The contract is not voidable if the relevant party’s permission wasn’t gained by fraud or deceit. As previously established, the three things listed under Section 19 that make a contract voidable are coercion, fraud, and misrepresentation.

Subsequently, Voidable Contracts

Hence, voidable contracts are those forms of contracts that become voidable after specific circumstances have occurred. Since they can be terminated or continued later by one of the parties, these contracts are known by this name. These agreements are governed by Sections 39, 53, and 55 of the Indian Contract Act of 1872.

Section 39 (Impact of a party’s refusal to fully perform a promise)

Section 53 (Liability of party preventing the event on which the contract is to take effect)

Section 53 (Liability of party preventing the event on which the contract is to take effect)

Contracts are Voidable by Law

The other party to the contract is released from any obligation to carry out any promises made therein to which the former is a promisor when the person whose option renders a contract voidable rescinds it. If a party cancels a voidable contract and obtains anything from another party to the contract, he is required to return that thing as much as he can to that person. The transmission or revocation of a voidable contract’s rescission may be made in the same manner and under the same circumstances as those governing those actions.

Can a voidable contract be legally binding?

The contract may become legally binding if the injured party does not reject or repudiate it within a reasonable amount of time after becoming aware of the reasons why it is void. Hence, you should raise it as soon as practical if you find evidence after a contract has been signed that you think justifies the contract’s unenforceability. A voidable contract may be explicitly approved or accepted by the released party. There’s a chance the acceptance goes unacknowledged.

Once a fair amount of time has passed, a contract may become legally enforceable if the party who was wronged by it continues to abide by its terms despite learning of the other party’s deceitful or fraudulent behaviour.

Depending on the specifics and circumstances of each case, a voidable contract may nevertheless end up being enforceable. On the other side, a void contract is never enforceable.


It is obvious to say that the idea of a voidable contract respects the freedom of the parties to the contract by giving weight to the parties’ willingness. It’s interesting to note that Section 75 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, supports this notion by stating that parties who are properly rescinding a contract are entitled to compensation for the loss they have experienced as a result of the contract’s non-fulfilment.

This fundamental idea of a voidable contract also sheds light on the significance of “free consent” in the jurisprudence of contract law. It will therefore be accurate to say that one of the foundational principles of contract law is the idea of a voidable contract.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is an example of a voidable contract?

Ans. Minors who have signed a contract are free to withdraw at any time because they lack the legal capacity to enter into this arrangement. The contract is voidable if one party was duped or coerced into signing it.

Q2. What is the meaning of “voidable”?

Ans. The meaning of voidable is able to be made void.” A misrepresentation by one party makes the contract voidable if the other party so decides.

Q3. What are the two kinds of voidable contracts?

Ans. Contracts signed without legal competence and agreements made without both parties’ consent fall under the two categories of voidable agreements. A contract must contain two essential legal components in order to be enforceable: capacity and mutual assent.

Meaning, Types, Working, Advantages & Uses

Design Pattern in Java

Design Patterns are a prevalent problem-solving technique among software developers. It contains all the solutions for common software problems while developing and designing software and has well-described solutions. The codes are a reusable form of a solution to the problem. The architect Christopher Alexander introduced these patterns to various other software developers who commonly faced problems while creating software. It is flexible and contains templates to solve while designing a system or application.

Experienced object-oriented software developers use flexible coding, reuse the codes, and add new codes to existing codes for version updates. It has solutions to all general problems faced by software engineers. These solutions are after several trials and errors by numerous developers over a period of time. Using JAVA language, we can design and develop a few applications and software along with the best practices by following the workflow of the Design Pattern.

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Understanding Design Patterns in Java

Different types of patterns are as follows:

#1 Singleton Pattern

It restricts the instantiation of a class to only one instance class that exists in Java virtual machine. Handling one instance class in the machine simultaneously is simple for designing patterns. When it comes to implementing concerns, many developers have different styles of fixing problems.

#2 Factory Pattern

It is on the inputs from clients we create or has a superclass with multiple sub-classes. This is the most widely used java design pattern because this pattern takes responsibility for instantiating a class from the client program to the functional class. This pattern is flexible in applying the Singleton pattern to the factory class or making the factory class static.

#3 Abstract Factory Pattern

It’s similar to the factory and can contain many factories in it; we can design many factories and relations with the design pattern in java. Simple factory class and many subclasses based on the input provided and switch statements to achieve as per project requirements. It helps in improving the patterns while programming.

#4 Builder Pattern

This pattern is the best one to solve some problems with factory and abstract factory design patterns when objects contain many attributions. Building pattern solves issues with many optional parameters and inconsistent ways of building the object step by step with a method that takes developers to reach the final object by the end.

#5 Prototype Pattern

This helps if the object creation is costly. Developing already existing simple objects takes a lot of time and resources. It adds codes to improve and make new objects with modifications as per needs in java cloning. The prototype design pattern has object copying, which provides the copying features. Any other class should not do it. Using the shallow or deep copy of object properties depends on requirements and design decisions.

How does the Design Pattern in Java make Working so Easy?

Design Patterns have evolved as the best problem-solving patterns provider these days. It has all the standard approaches to solve the common problem in the building phase of the software application or software. It is the IT industry’s best practice, saves time, and provides sensible patterns as required to developers. With design patterns, the developer can work and develop robust processes and maintainable codes. In addition, it has the option of reusable codes, which reduces the total development cost of the application.

It simplifies the job for testers and new learners to understand and modify the patterns as per demands. Software engineers can quickly fix problems, if any, that are noticed at any stage of the design, testing, and operations of the application or software. Fast to develop in the context of java, design patterns are creative, structural, and behavioral, which can be easily understood and applied while coding multiple objects, classes, etc. The version updates, slight changes, coding, and patterns are the reference for building new software.

Various Subsets of Design Patterns in Java

Structural design patterns are the ways to create class structures using inheritance and composition from large objects to small objects.

#1 Adopter Pattern

It helps in joining unrelated interfaces to work together with the objects. This is one of the valuable patterns used in the Java development of software design.

#2 Composite Pattern

Composite patterns are one of the structural design patterns used to represent a part-whole hierarchy. We need to create a new structure so that the objects in the structure treat the same way. A specific purpose composition patterns as per requirements operations.

#3 Proxy Pattern

It provides a placeholder or surrogate for other objects to control access to it. Proxy patterns are helpful when we want to provide controlled access to functionality. It also has implementation requirements as per needs.

#4 Flyweight Pattern

A flyweight pattern is useful when there is a demand to create many objects of a class so that every object consumes memory space which can be crucial for low-memory devices.

#5 Facade Pattern

This is useful in helping the client applications to interact with the systems efficiently. MySQL can use Oracle databases‘ interface to generate different types of logs or reports using HTML, PDF, etc. Different interfaces with different databases as per clients’ needs. It improves client application and usage with good relations with clients.

#6 Bridge Pattern #7 Decorator Pattern

A decorator helps modify the object’s functionality at runtime simultaneously. Other instances of the same class will not get any effect from this. We use compositions to extend the behavior of an object with time and applicability on the instances of the class.

What can you do with the Design Patterns in Java?

Behavioral design patterns help create or modify existing applications per the latest market updates and benchmark with clients’ demands for smooth process flow. Software developers can well understand the design structure of an application using patterns. To make changes in a different location per version update requests by end-user, developer, and client. Easy structure for developers, testers, and other professionals.

Reusable codes that are easily maintained with quick tracking solutions using simple patterns if any problems occur in the performance of the application or system. They are solving all the problems and developing well-structured applications or software to compete in the market with industrial standards.

Working with Design Patterns in Java

Design Patterns are a prevalent problem-solving technique used by software designers when creating or modifying applications or software programs. It helps create simple and easily structured software that can be easily understood by testers, developers, and users for their use.

Maintaining and adding new attributions as per version demands can be quickly done. Finding and quick fixes of the bugs happen with good observation. Developers can use repeated codes if necessary. We can work on multiple interfaces and can bridge them. Adds professional values to experienced and junior software designing and development experts. Tool update and provide the latest codes for common mistakes in design patterns.

Advantages of Design Patterns in Java

This helps design innovative and flexible codes per project requirements with suitable objects, classes, loosely coupled codes, a quick understanding of structures, and many more.

Unwanted codes and problems can be easily identified and changed helpless work to testers and maintainers of the application.

Client and end-users feel the interface is more user-friendly and provide a good user experience while working or using an application or software.

Required Skills

To understand Design Patterns, we need to have basic knowledge of coding.

Must know the application and software designing and maintaining procedures to match the concepts and syllabus to real-time usage.

Must know java or be a student of IT; CSC pursue this course as they have a semester and now java in their graduation course.

Why Should we use Design Patterns in Java?

In the IT industry, coding, application design, and structure play a vital role in the success of the application or software. This job of designing effective software with easy patterns is available in java design patterns. Many hugs and robust designs can maintain and execute quickly because of design patterns. It identifies the common mistakes in coding in the design phase and reduces the cost of ownership.


Design Patterns are trendy and are helpful for many professional companies worldwide to design and develop software programs and applications. It has high industrial usage and helps design, test, maintain, and reuse the coding for multiple processes. It’s easy to fix the issue at any phase of the application due to its easy-to-understand structure to identify the code of the problem with suitable solutions to fix it. It deals with dynamics change at runtime and class scopes at the time of building.

Why do we Need a Design Pattern in Java?

Design Patterns coding uses simple and repeated similar codes per the projects’ requirements, which can be handled and maintained with basic knowledge. Because of this, the application and software are designed and developed using design patterns that can maintain easily.

The design patterns help the testers, software developers, and others avoid problems or bugs while working. Even to identify the bugs in the application or system, we can quickly find them and fix them in less time. Design patterns with java also help to add new coding and features to the application or system. It is per customer feedback or internal developments for the latest or upcoming software versions.

Who is the Right Audience for Learning Design Patterns in Java Technologies?

Computer graduates and experienced IT professionals interested and experienced in designing and developing an application and software can learn these courses to learn the best practices and improve their skills while designing and developing software applications.

Career Growth

Design patterns course helps to gain a complete skill set on designing and developing software applications in professional requirements and structure of software requirements. This course allows us to get good software designing job opportunities in multiple companies. We can upgrade the adopt multiple codes per the latest client requirements and project demands.

Final Thoughts

Design Patterns provides the ability and skills to make an innovative and interactive application and software with simple and easy problem-solving and understanding patterns and works that help make the best user-friendly applications and update them easily with the latest requirements. To get the best IT job in the global market. The tool provides flexible coding patterns and methods of structure, reusable codes, loosely written codes, classes, patterns, etc., making design patterns interesting to deal with.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q1. Is MVC one of the design patterns?

Answer: MVC or Model-View-Controller is one of the design patterns supporting web application development. It designs the applications by dividing them into three components model, view, and controllers.

Q2. What is the need for a design pattern?

Answer: Design patterns are obvious in application development. It accelerates the development process by providing the paradigm, and they are the proven solutions to the problems that arise frequently. So that the developer can save time by referring them in case of any arise in problems.

Q3. How is the design pattern different from the design framework?

Answer: The design pattern is a small architecture in the design framework. In simple words, numerous design patterns combine to form a design framework. These patterns are always less specialized, and frameworks are more domain specific.

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Types And Examples Of Python Validation

Introduction to Python Validation

Whenever the user accepts an input, it needs to be checked for validation which checks if the input data is what we are expecting. The validation can be done in two different ways, that is by using a flag variable or by using try or except which the flag variable will be set to false initially and if we can find out that the input data is what we are expecting the flag status can be set to true and find out what can be done next based on the status of the flag whereas while using try or except, a section of code is tried to run. If there is a negative response, then the except block of code is run.

Types of Validation in Python

There are three types of validation in python, they are:

Type Check: This validation technique in python is used to check the given input data type. For example, int, float, etc.

Length Check: This validation technique in python is used to check the given input string’s length.

Range Check: This validation technique in python is used to check if a given number falls in between the two numbers.

The syntax for validation in Python is given below:

Syntax using the flag:

flagName = False while not flagName: if [Do check here]: flagName = True else: print('error message')

The status of the flag is set to false initially, and the same condition is considered for a while loop to make the statement while not true, and the validation is performed setting the flag to true if the validation condition is satisfied; otherwise, the error message is printed.

Syntax using an exception:

while True: try: [run code that might fail here] break except: print('This is the error message if the code fails') print('run the code from here if code is successfully run in the try block of code above')

print(‘run the code from here if code is successfully run in the try block of code above)

We set the condition to be true initially and perform the necessary validation by running a block of code, and if the code fails to perform the validation, an exception is raised displaying the error message and a success message is printed if the try block successfully executes the code.

Examples of Python Validation

Examples of python validation are:

Example #1

Python program using a flag to validate if the input given by the user is an integer.#Datatype check.

#Declare a variable validInt which is also considered as flag and set it to false validInt = False #Consider the while condition to be true and prompt the user to enter the input while not validInt: #The user is prompted to enter the input age1 = input('Please enter your age ') #The input entered by the user is checked to see if it’s a digit or a number if age1.isdigit(): #The flag is set to true if the if condition is true validInt = True else: print('The input is not a valid number') #This statement is printed if the input entered by the user is a number print('The entered input is a number and that is ' + str(age1))


Example #2

Python program uses flag and exception to validate the type of input given by the user and determine if it lies within a given range. #Range Check.


#Declare a variable areTeenager which is also considered as flag and set it to false areTeenager = False #Consider the while condition to be true and prompt the user to enter the input while not areTeenager: try: #The user is prompted to enter the input age1 = int(input('Please enter your age ')) #The input entered by the user is checked if it lies between the range specified except: print('The age entered by you is not a valid number between 13 and 19') #This statement is printed if the input entered by the user lies between the range of the number specified print('You are a teenager whose age lies between 13 and 19 and the entered age is ' + str(age1))


Example #3

Python program using the flag to check the length of the input string. #Length Check.


#Declare a variable lenstring which is also considered as flag and set it to false lenstring = False #Consider the while condition to be true and prompt the user to enter the input while not lenstring: password1 = input('Please enter a password consisting of five characters ') #The input entered by the user is checked for its length and if it is below five lenstring = True else: print('The number of characters in the entered password is less than five characters') #This statement is printed if the input entered by the user consists of less than five characters print('The entered password is: ' + password1)



Validation in python helps to improve the security of code.

It prevents third-party users from mishandling the code accidentally or intentionally.

It can be used to check if the input data type is correct or not.

It can be used to check if there are no invalid values in the given input.

It can be used to check if the given input lies in the range or is it out of range.

It can be used to check if the given input meets the constraints specified on them.

It can be used to check if the given input is consistent or not.

It can be used to check if the given input is valid.

It can be used to check if the given input is complete or incomplete.

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