Trending October 2023 # Methods And Techniques Of Nurture Marketing # Suggested November 2023 # Top 15 Popular |

Trending October 2023 # Methods And Techniques Of Nurture Marketing # Suggested November 2023 # Top 15 Popular

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Introduction to Nurture Marketing

Nurture Marketing is simply marketing by constant engagement and involvement with the clients. In this nurture marketing strategy, there is no effort to push products but provide content and information to a target audience based on the demographics and consumption patterns of the individual. The continuing dialogue with the customer helps to convert a doubtful or hesitant consumer into someone willing to buy.

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Nurture Marketing Some of the methods used in Nurture Marketing

The following are some methods:

1. Getting connected through annual Events and shows

When IFB launched dishwashers in India, they took part in trade fairs in different cities, talked to potential customers, and arranged a demo at home for a day, thus creating better awareness, branding, and sales conversions.  There is no hard sell in this process, and the consumer gets to know the product closely before deciding to invest their hard-earned money. One can test-market many new products this way by directly getting customers’ responses.

Likewise, a new model concept of an inverted air-conditioner can better sell when someone explains its features directly to customers. Automobile companies participate in fairs to help customers get a feel for the looks and interiors and get clarification for their doubts from the executives. Thereafter, the company can follow up on loans requiring an exchange of old cars through a nurturing process that makes the customer feel comfortable rather than be pushed into buying.

2. Get connected to Email campaigns & Website

Email Marketing nurture campaign is a great way to connect with potential and existing customers, but it should not annoy them. The first email can introduce a product, and those interested can sign up for a free brochure or booklet. The follow-up emails could be an invitation for an event or webinar or an offer to do a product demo. There should be an option at the bottom of the email to unsubscribe to future emails in case the customer doesn’t want such information from your company. Having an ‘unsubscribe’ option is the best way to ensure that your emails do not end up in a ‘spam’ or ‘trash’ folder, which will not go well with the email solutions provider.

Instead of bombarding consumers with marketing messages, sharing case studies, product reviews, and testimonials would be better. Case studies and testimonials prove that your product has benefited others and helped them understand their pain points. This will allow the marketer to offer solutions that will better address the customer’s needs.

It helps to have a content management platform and integrate it with a digital marketing platform. In this way, visitors to your website satisfying certain criteria can be fed with unique content that is personalized for them. Thus nurturing extends beyond email to the website.

Website visitors shouldn’t be seen as one entity but as different types of consumers, either first-time buyers, new prospects, or existing buyers. So content should be placed appropriately for them as they browse, e.g., as a member of our loyalty program we hope you will like our Loyalty Plus program; thanks for being a subscriber of our Titan Anti-Virus software. A new upgrade is now available for download. Thanks for registering with us; you are entitled to $10 cash back on your first purchase. When the website content gets linked to emailing initiatives and becomes personalized for the consumer, the long-term spinoffs need not be stressed.

3. Blog posts, promotional news, and social media

Likewise, an immigration program to Canada can be best promoted by good articles that highlight the quality of life, earnings, and repatriation benefits for students and job seekers. For many products and services, customers need more information and time to think before pressing the buy button. Nurture marketing enables this through constant contact with the customers through social media and blogs.

4. Free offers/ training and demo programs 5. Nurture post-sale relationships

After all the effort to close a lead, it would be meaningless if customers were not contacted after the nurture sales and marketing. Product warranties may sometimes require the customer to register online with serial or model numbers for free service. Customers often forget about it, so it would be great if one reminds them of it.

Secondly, it is good to get feedback occasionally by phone or email regarding the quality of the product and customer service.  Automobile companies are seen doing this more often than other categories, but customers would be more satisfied if the support is provided until the end of the product life-cycle. It will ensure that customers repeat purchases of the same product or a costlier model.

Nurturing may be the best way to give attractive exchange offers to existing customers, thereby ensuring their loyalty to the company. The updates on loyalty points earned and requests to redeem them can also help in better engagement and dialogue with customers benefitting the company in the long run.

When a company is in a nurturing relationship with customers, it can sell complementary products and gain additional revenue. For example, a dishwasher manufacturer can suggest a stand, stabilizer, or water filter to achieve better performance and avoid some potential problems in the future.

Techniques for Nurture Marketing Success

Often, a company pursuing a path of traditional marketing by high profile mass media campaigns, emailers, and social media promotions may get a bit uncertain about when to start Nurture Marketing initiatives. There is no auspicious time or stage of the product lifecycle, the launch of the product to begin the process. As in swimming, there is no point in standing before the pool and theorizing. The best nurture marketing strategy is to test the waters.

1. Begin the process

It is important to begin the process somewhere, whether through an email marketing nurture campaign, a tale-calling exercise, or a trade event. What is more important is to get going and start analyzing the results.  This will also help the marketers to change strategy if required and try alternative ones. However, nurturing involves written and verbal communication, which means adequate care should be taken regarding the quality of content and voice or email interactions. Once the program has been set in motion, additional layers of complexity can be built. To start, one can do drip nurture, whereby all customers receive the same message, which could be product news, events, or demos.

2. Understand your audience

Without a proper understanding of the audience, nurture marketing may not bring the desired results. This is where Big Data can help with important information about customers, their demographics, buying patterns, and interests. Web forms can enable companies to get data from consumers that will help you engage with them more meaningfully.

3. Tailor content to specific audiences 4. Don’t restrict activity to one channel

It is better to have a multi-channel strategy rather than confining it to either email, social media or blogging alone. Short Messaging Service (SMS), snail mail, Tele-calling, and related channels can be cost-effectively utilized. Multi-channel initiatives can amplify your nurture marketing strategy, keep customers engaged, and increase satisfaction.

5. Adopting a persona approach

It is important to create imaginary customer profiles or personas and understand their pain points, needs, and communication preferences. Hence, it is useful to segregate the audience in terms of their browsing habits, survey responses, and industry. It will enable the company to develop specific nurture marketing content that satisfies these personas and develop content around it.

6. Content matrix analysis

Once the content has been created on the basis of personas created, it should be analyzed as to how many of them are addressed through your content. Some personas may be lacking in content, and that can be addressed. Additional content relevant to that persona can remedy such gaps in content.


Lead nurture marketing helps better understanding and delivery for customers and should be an ongoing process rather than a one-off exercise. It should continue until the end of the product lifecycle leading to the next.

For a company that is a beginner in nurture marketing, there are several examples to go by in various industries, and using their case studies, new strategies can be evolved. DocuSign, LinkedIn, Polycom, Cetera  Financial Group, Jackson Healthcare, Perceptive Software, and other award-winning nurture marketing programs in the past two years should motivate beginners in this nurture marketing strategy.

The explosion of mass media, electronic media has led to a disconnect with the customers which can now be effectively forged by Big Data, social media, the web, and other forms of democratic sharing mediums in cyberspace.


Here are some further articles to learn more:

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The Socket And Its Methods

The Socket and its Methods

Sockets are the endpoints of a bidirectional communication channel. They may communicate within a process, between processes on the same machine or between processes on different machines. On a similar note, a network socket is one endpoint in a communication flow between two programs running over a computer network such as the Internet. It is purely a virtual thing and does not mean any hardware. Network socket can be identified by a unique combination of an IP address and port number. Network sockets may be implemented over a number of different channel types like TCP, UDP, and so on.

The different terms related to socket used in network programming are as follows −


Domain is the family of protocols that is used as the transport mechanism. These values are constants such as AF_INET, PF_INET, PF_UNIX, PF_X25, and so on.


Type means the kind of communication between two endpoints, typically SOCK_STREAM for connection-oriented protocols and SOCK_DGRAM for connectionless protocols.


This may be used to identify a variant of a protocol within a domain and type. Its default value is 0. This is usually left out.


This works as the identifier of a network interface. A hostname nay be a string, a dotted-quad address, or an IPV6 address in colon (and possibly dot) notation.


Each server listens for clients calling on one or more ports. A port may be a Fixnum port number, a string containing a port number, or the name of a service.

Python’s Socket Module for Socket Programming

To implement socket programming in python, we need to use the Socket module. Following is a simple syntax to create a Socket −

import socket s = socket.socket (socket_family, socket_type, protocol = 0)

Here, we need to import the socket library and then make a simple socket. Following are the different parameters used while making socket −

socket_family − This is either AF_UNIX or AF_INET, as explained earlier.

socket_type − This is either SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_DGRAM.

protocol − This is usually left out, defaulting to 0.

Socket Methods

In this section, we will learn about the different socket methods. The three different set of socket methods are described below −

Server Socket Methods

Client Socket Methods

General Socket Methods

Server Socket Methods

In the client-server architecture, there is one centralized server that provides service and many clients receive service from that centralized server. The clients also do the request to server. A few important server socket methods in this architecture are as follows −

socket.bind() − This method binds the address (hostname, port number) to the socket.

socket.listen() − This method basically listens to the connections made to the socket. It starts TCP listener. Backlog is an argument of this method which specifies the maximum number of queued connections. Its minimum value is 0 and maximum value is 5.

socket.accept() − This will accept TCP client connection. The pair (conn, address) is the return value pair of this method. Here, conn is a new socket object used to send and receive data on the connection and address is the address bound to the socket. Before using this method, the socket.bind() and socket.listen() method must be used.

Client Socket Methods

The client in the client-server architecture requests the server and receives services from the server. For this, there is only one method dedicated for clients −

socket.connect(address) − this method actively intimate server connection or in simple words this method connects the client to the server. The argument address represents the address of the server.

General Socket Methods

Other than client and server socket methods, there are some general socket methods, which are very useful in socket programming. The general socket methods are as follows −

socket.recv(bufsize) − As name implies, this method receives the TCP message from socket. The argument bufsize stands for buffer size and defines the maximum data this method can receive at any one time.

socket.send(bytes) − This method is used to send data to the socket which is connected to the remote machine. The argument bytes will gives the number of bytes sent to the socket.

socket.recvfrom(data, address) − This method receives data from the socket. Two pair (data, address) value is returned by this method. Data defines the received data and address specifies the address of socket sending the data.

socket.sendto(data, address) − As name implies, this method is used to send data from the socket. Two pair (data, address) value is returned by this method. Data defines the number of bytes sent and address specifies the address of the remote machine.

socket.close() − This method will close the socket.

socket.gethostname() − This method will return the name of the host.

socket.sendall(data) − This method sends all the data to the socket which is connected to a remote machine. It will carelessly transfers the data until an error occurs and if it happens then it uses socket.close() method to close the socket.

Program to establish a connection between server & client

To establish a connection between server and client, we need to write two different Python programs, one for server and the other for client.

Server-side program

In this server side socket program, we will use the socket.bind() method which binds it to a specific IP address and port so that it can listen to incoming requests on that IP and port. Later, we use the socket.listen() method which puts the server into the listen mode. The number, say 4, as the argument of the socket.listen() method means that 4 connections are kept waiting if the server is busy and if a 5th socket tries to connect then the connection is refused. We will send a message to the client by using the socket.send() method. Towards the end, we use the socket.accept() and socket.close() method for initiating and closing the connection respectively. Following is a server side program −

import socket def Main(): host = socket.gethostname() port = 12345 serversocket = socket.socket() serversocket.bind((host,port)) serversocket.listen(1) print('socket is listening') while True: conn,addr = serversocket.accept() print("Got connection from %s" % str(addr)) msg = 'Connecting Established'+ "rn" conn.send(msg.encode('ascii')) conn.close() if __name__ == '__main__': Main() Client-side program

In the client-side socket program, we need to make a socket object. Then we will connect to the port on which our server is running — 12345 in our example. After that we will establish a connection by using the socket.connect() method. Then by using the socket.recv() method, the client will receive the message from server. At last, the socket.close() method will close the client.

import socket s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) host = socket.gethostname() port = 12345 s.connect((host, port)) msg = s.recv(1024) s.close() print (msg.decode('ascii'))

Now, after running the server-side program we will get the following output on terminal −

socket is listening Got connection from ('', 49904)

And after running the client-side program, we will get the following output on other terminal −

Connection Established Handling network socket exceptions

There are two blocks namely try and except which can be used to handle network socket exceptions. Following is a Python script for handling exception −

import socket host = "" port = 12345 s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM) try: s.bind((host,port)) s.settimeout(3) data, addr = s.recvfrom(1024) print ("recevied from ",addr) print ("obtained ", data) s.close() except socket.timeout : print ("No connection between client and server") s.close() Output

The above program generates the following output −

No connection between client and server

In the above script, first we made a socket object. This was followed by providing the host IP address and port number on which our server is running — 12345 in our example. Later, the try block is used and inside it by using the socket.bind() method, we will try to bind the IP address and port. We are using socket.settimeout() method for setting the wait time for client, in our example we are setting 3 seconds. The except block is used which will print a message if the connection will not be established between server and client.


What Is Data Mining? Basics And Its Techniques.

The foundation of the fourth industrial revolution will largely depend upon Data and Connectivity. Analysis Services capable of developing or creating data mining solutions will play a key role in this regard. It could assist in analyzing and predicting outcomes of customer purchasing behavior for targeting potential buyers. Data will become a new natural resource and the process of extracting relevant information from this unsorted data will assume immense importance. As such, a proper understanding of the term – Data Mining, its processes, and application could help us in developing a holistic approach to this buzzword.

Data Mining Basics and its Techniques

Data mining, also known as Knowledge Discovery in Data (KDD) is about searching large stores of data to uncover patterns and trends that go beyond simple analysis. This, however, is not a single-step solution but a multi-step process and is completed in various stages. These include:

1] Data gathering and Preparation

It starts with data collection and its proper organization. This helps in significantly improving the chances of finding the information that can be discovered through data mining

2] Model Building and Evaluation

The second step in data mining process is the application of various modeling techniques. These are used to calibrate the parameters to optimal values. Techniques employed largely depend on analytic capabilities required to address a gamut of organizational needs and to arrive at a decision.

Let us examine some data mining techniques in brief. It is found that most organizations combine two or more data mining techniques together to form an appropriate process that meets their business requirements.

Read: What is Big Data?

Data Mining Techniques

Association – Association is one of the widely-known data mining techniques. Under this, a pattern is deciphered based on a relationship between items in the same transaction. Hence, it is also known as the relation technique. Big brand retailers rely on this technique to research customer’s buying habits/preferences. For example, when tracking people’s buying habits, retailers might identify that a customer always buys cream when they buy chocolates, and therefore suggest that the next time that they buy chocolates they might also want to buy cream.

Classification – This data mining technique differs from the above in the way that it is based on machine learning and uses mathematical techniques such as Linear programming, Decision trees, Neural network. In classification, companies try to build software that can learn how to classify the data items into groups. For instance, a company can define a classification in the application that “given all records of employees who offered to resign from the company, predict the number of individuals who are likely to resign from the company in future.” Under such a scenario, the company can classify the records of employees into two groups that namely “leave” and “stay”. It can then use its data mining software to classify the employees into separate groups created earlier.

Clustering – Different objects exhibiting similar characteristics are grouped together in a single cluster via automation. Many such clusters are created as classes and objects (with similar characteristics) are placed in it accordingly. To understand this better, let us consider an example of book management in the library. In a library, the vast collection of books is fully cataloged. Items of the same type are listed together. This makes it easier for us to find a book of our interest. Similarly, by using the clustering technique, we can keep books that have some kinds of similarities in one cluster and assign it a suitable name. So, if a reader is looking to grab a book relevant to his interest, he only has to go to that shelf instead of searching the entire library. Thus, the clustering technique defines the classes and puts objects in each class, while in the classification techniques, objects are assigned into predefined classes.

Prediction – The prediction is a data mining technique that is often used in combination with the other data mining techniques. It involves analyzing trends, classification, pattern matching, and relation. By analyzing past events or instances in a proper sequence one can safely predict a future event. For instance, the prediction analysis technique can be used in the sale to predict future profit if the sale is chosen as an independent variable and profit as a variable dependent on sale. Then, based on the historical sale and profit data, one can draw a fitted regression curve that is used for profit prediction.

Data Mining is at the heart of analytics efforts across a variety of industries and disciplines like communications, Insurance, Education, Manufacturing, Banking and Retail and more. Therefore, having correct information about it is essential before apply the different techniques.

Also read: What is Social Media Mining?

What Are The Different Isolation And Screening Techniques?


Isolation is a process of separating individual bacteria to study their morphology or for industrial purposes.

The process of isolating and screening a microbe out of natural surroundings, such as soil, which has a substantial microbial population, is a costly and lengthy process. For instance, Eli Lilly & Co. Ltd., after screening 4,00,000 organisms, identified three main types of microbes that produce antibiotics over the course of ten years.

Streaking is a method used in microbiology to isolate a pure strain from a single species of microbe, frequently a bacterium. In order to identify, research, or test the organism, samples can be obtained from the resulting colonies and a microbiological culture can be produced on a new plate.


In order to identify the microbe(s) of interest, a strain is separated from a natural, mixed population of living organisms found in the environment i.e., water or soil, or from living things skin, mouth, or gut flora.

Streaking and pour plating are the two techniques that are widely used for the isolation of bacteria.


Streaking is a quick and, ideally, straightforward isolation dilution technique.

Method or procedure to be followed

The method involves reducing the bacterial population from a relatively high concentration to a lower concentration.

Bacterial decline should indicate that colonies are adequately spaced apart to influence the separation of the various microbe kinds. Streaking is done with a clean implement, usually an inoculation loop or a cotton swab.

Microbiological cultures are kept up-to-date using aseptic procedures, which also help to keep the growing media clean.

The process of streaking a plate can be done in a variety of ways. The technique chosen depends on personal choice as well as the number of microorganisms present in the sample.

The T-Streak, a three-phase streaking pattern, First, a flame is used to sterilize the inoculation loop.

The loop is dipped into an inoculum, such as a broth or patient specimen, that contains a variety of bacterial species when it is cool.

After that, the inoculation loop is moved in a zigzag pattern across the agar surface until around 30% of the plate has been covered. The plate is then rotated 90 degrees while the loop is re-sterilized.

The loop is pulled through the area that had previously been streaked two to three times to continue the zigzag pattern.

The process is then carried out one more, being careful not to touch the areas that had previously been streaked.

Pour Plating

For obligate and anaerobic microorganisms, the pour plate method is a typical plating technique.

Method or Procedure to be Followed 

This method involves serial dilution, counting the colony-forming units, and is used to isolate microbial colonies (CFUs).

In this procedure, the liquid sample is added to the petri dish before the agar medium has a chance to set.

Colonies develop inside and outside of the medium after solidification. Confluent colonies, however, are growing within the medium; the colonies on the surface are counted as viable.

Before handling any microbiological solution, wash your hands with an antiseptic solution.

Any pertinent details, including your name, the date, the media you used, and the culture being injected, should be written on the petri dish.

It can be suspended in sterilized broth or water to create a liquid solution. If the material is already liquid, prepare successive dilutions of it to reduce the concentration of microbial colonies, which should not exceed 20–300 CFU/ml. Dilutions up to 10-10 can be made.

Open the Petri dish covers and add 1 cc of the diluted sample for inoculation. 15 to 18 ml of the molten agar should be poured onto the sample once it has been slightly heated.

Pour Plate Method Uses

Scientists use it to calculate the concentration of cells in a given sample and to obtain microbial growth curves.

It is also used to examine the impact of various environmental and growth factors on the rate of bacterial growth.


Screening is the process of finding and isolating a microbe from a natural environment, such as soil, which has a substantial microbial population. It is an expensive and time-consuming process.

Primary Screening of Microorganisms

Primary screening can be described as the qualitative ability of the desired microorganism to create the desired product, such as an antibiotic, amino acid, or enzyme, etc., followed by the detection and isolation of the desired microbe.

Secondary Screening Microorganisms

Secondary screening provides a wealth of relevant information, like newly isolated microbes in fermentation processes with economic value. These preliminary examinations are carried out in flasks or tiny fermenters filled with liquid media, or in petri dishes with solid media.

The liquid medium method is more accurate than the agar plate method because it offers more meaningful data regarding an organism’s dietary, physical, and production responses to genuine fermentation production settings.

Primary and Secondary Screening Techniques

Following are the screening techniques used widely in primary and secondary screening

The Crowded Plate Technique

This primary screening method aids in identifying the microorganisms that can produce antibiotics or not. With the assistance of natural substrates, such as soil or other sources It is decided to use an “appropriate aliquot” of “serial dilution” that, when plated on an agar plate (also known as a crowded plate), can result in 300 to 400 colonies.

Indicator Dye Technique

Calcium carbonate is introduced into the portion of the agar medium in this indicator dye procedure. As a result, this method can be used to pinpoint the area of organic acid synthesis and identify colonies that are producing the substance. pH can be measured by adding “pH indicator dyes” like neutral red or bromothymol blue to “nutrient agar medium.

Enrichment Culture Technique

In general, it is a technique that aids in the isolation of the soil sample’s relatively few microorganisms, which may have nutrient requirements that are crucial for industrial use. Several secondary procedures might be used to find out crucial information about the product or microorganisms.

Giant Colony Technique, Filtration Method, and Liquid Medium Method are a few examples of the numerous secondary screening processes.

Giant Colony Technique Filtration Method

This is a crucial technique that aids in testing the ineffective antibiotics that are water-soluble and cannot permeate across a solid media. A variety of antibiotic dilutions are made and added to molten “agar plating medium” as well to solidify.

Liquid Medium Method

It is a distinct kind of secondary screening technique that aids in figuring out how many antibiotic-producing bacteria, like Streptomyces, are actually isolated.


The microbiology of an organism or desired cells can be determined using either these primary or secondary methods. A straightforward methodology can be used to isolate and detect microorganisms in addition to the fundamental method.

As a result, it is a very useful procedure that can readily identify the biochemical traits that are displayed in bacteria and all of the crucial information about the chosen microbes can be discovered through secondary screening.

Exploratory Analysis Using Univariate, Bivariate, And Multivariate Analysis Techniques


 Data Analysis can be organized into 6 types

  Exploratory Analysis


Descriptive Analysis


Inferential Analysis


Predictive Analysis


Causal Analysis


Mechanistic Analysis

Here, we will dive deep into Exploratory Analysis,

Exploratory Analysis

 The preliminary analysis of data to discover relationships between measures in the data and to gain an insight on the trends, patterns, and relationships among various entities present in the data set with the help of statistics and visualization tools is called Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA). 

Exploratory data analysis is cross-classified in two different ways where each method is either graphical or non-graphical. And then, each method is either univariate, bivariate or multivariate.

Univariate Analysis

Uni means one and variate means variable, so in univariate analysis, there is only one dependable variable. The objective of univariate analysis is to derive the data, define and summarize it, and analyze the pattern present in it. In a dataset, it explores each variable separately. It is possible for two kinds of variables- Categorical and Numerical.

Some patterns that can be easily identified with univariate analysis are Central Tendency (mean, mode and median), Dispersion (range, variance), Quartiles (interquartile range), and Standard deviation.

 Univariate data can be described through:



Frequency Distribution Tables

The frequency distribution table reflects how often an occurrence has taken place in the data. It gives a brief idea of the data and makes it easier to find patterns.


The list of IQ scores is: 118, 139, 124, 125, 127, 128, 129, 130, 130, 133, 136, 138, 141, 142, 149, 130, 154.

IQ Range














Bar Charts

The bar graph is very convenient while comparing categories of data or different groups of data. It helps to track changes over time. It is best for visualizing discrete data.




Histograms are similar to bar charts and display the same categorical variables against the category of data. Histograms display these categories as bins which indicate the number of data points in a range. It is best for visualizing continuous data.



Pie Charts

Pie charts are mainly used to comprehend how a group is broken down into smaller pieces. The whole pie represents 100 percent, and the slices denote the relative size of that particular category.

Ø  Frequency Polygons

Similar to histograms, a frequency polygon is used for comparing datasets or displaying the cumulative frequency distribution.

Bivariate Analysis

Bi means two and variate means variable, so here there are two variables. The analysis is related to cause and the relationship between the two variables. There are three types of bivariate analysis.

Bivariate Analysis of two Numerical Variables




Scatter Plot

A scatter plot represents individual pieces of data using dots. These plots make it easier to see if two variables are related to each other. The resulting pattern indicates the type (linear or non-linear) and strength of the relationship between two variables.

Ø  Linear Correlation

Linear Correlation represents the strength of a linear relationship between two numerical variables. If there is no correlation between the two variables, there is no tendency to change along with the values of the second quantity.

Here, r measures the strength of a linear relationship and is always between -1 and 1 where -1 denotes perfect negative linear correlation and +1 denotes perfect positive linear correlation and zero denotes no linear correlation.

Bivariate Analysis of two categorical Variables




Chi-square Test

The chi-square test is used for determining the association between categorical variables. It is calculated based on the difference between expected frequencies and the observed frequencies in one or more categories of the frequency table. A probability of zero indicates a complete dependency between two categorical variables and a probability of one indicates that two categorical variables are completely independent. 

Here, subscript c indicates the degrees of freedom, O indicates observed value, and E indicates expected value. 

Bivariate Analysis of one numerical and one categorical variable


Ø Z-test and t-test

 Z and T-tests are important to calculate if the difference between a sample and population is substantial.

If the probability of Z is small, the difference between the two averages is more significant.


If the sample size is large enough, then we use a Z-test, and for a small sample size, we use a T-test.



The ANOVA test is used to determine whether there is a significant difference among the averages of more than two groups that are statistically different from each other. This analysis is appropriate for comparing the averages of a numerical variable for more than two categories of a categorical variable.

Multivariate Analysis

Multivariate analysis is required when more than two variables have to be analyzed simultaneously. It is a tremendously hard task for the human brain to visualize a relationship among 4 variables in a graph and thus multivariate analysis is used to study more complex sets of data. Types of Multivariate Analysis include Cluster Analysis, Factor Analysis, Multiple Regression Analysis, Principal Component Analysis, etc. More than 20 different ways to perform multivariate analysis exist and which one to choose depends upon the type of data and the end goal to achieve. The most common ways are:

Ø Cluster Analysis

Cluster Analysis classifies different objects into clusters in a way that the similarity between two objects from the same group is maximum and minimal otherwise. It is used when rows and columns of the data table represent the same units and the measure represents distance or similarity.


Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

Principal Components Analysis (or PCA) is used for reducing the dimensionality of a data table with a large number of interrelated measures. Here, the original variables are converted into a new set of variables, which are known as the “Principal Components” of Principal Component Analysis.

PCA is used for the dataset that shows multicollinearity. Although least squares estimates are biased, the distance between variances and their actual value can be really large. So, PCA adds some bias and reduces standard error for the regression model. 


Correspondence Analysis

Correspondence Analysis using the data from a contingency table shows relative relationships between and among two different groups of variables. A contingency table is a 2D table with rows and columns as groups of variables.


I hope you now have a better understanding of various techniques used in Univariate, Bivariate, and Multivariate Analysis.

The media shown in this article are not owned by Analytics Vidhya and is used at the Author’s discretion. 


Relapse Prevention Techniques Meaning Application

Relapse occurs when an alcoholic or drug addict starts drinking or using again after abstaining, sometimes for some time. A Relapse after finishing treatment is frequent for those with addictions, but it does not indicate that the therapy was unsuccessful. Instead, relapsing indicates the need for more therapy or a change in approach. Relapse prevention may be aided by knowing the causes of backsliding and any interventions used to counteract them.

Explaining Techniques of Relapse Prevention

Dependence is a chronic disease defined by compulsive drug use despite negative consequences. Over 20 percent of Americans from 12 and up are struggling with addiction or drug use problems, as determined by recent polling. Because addiction is progressive, Relapse — a return to substance misuse following abstinence — is common. About half of those who struggle with substance abuse eventually Relapse while trying to become sober. The estimated recurrence rate for drug misuse is between 40 to 60 percent, making it comparable to the Relapse rate for other chronic medical conditions, including asthma, hypertension, and diabetes.

When Exactly Do We Call It a Relapse?

Any time an individual who has taken efforts to quit drinking or using drugs afterward resumes those behaviors, this is known as a Relapse. This might be a discrete occurrence or an ongoing activity. The following are a few of the most often cited causes of backsliding




Influence of Others


Feelings of emptiness

Symptoms of detox


Difficulties in interpersonal relationships

Drug-related gear

Certain surroundings, sensory experiences, and odors

Relapse, the Progression through Its Various Forms

Relapse prevention reveals that return tends to be a long process with three separate phases, mental and physical—and begins even before the individual restarts drinking or using drugs.

Failure to Maintain Emotional Stability

At this point, the person may not be actively considering alcohol or drug use, but they are still not taking good care of themselves. They may begin to repress their feelings, withdraw from others, develop unhealthy habits, and lose sleep.

The Relapse of the Mind

The Relapse of the Mind

Drug and alcohol cravings, longing for old hangouts and friends, and denial of the negative effects of substance abuse all contribute to an internal struggle known as “Relapse.”

The slump in the Physical Domain

The slump in the Physical Domain

An unmanageable degree of drug and alcohol use starts at this time.

Programs for Treatment Lower the Rate of Relapse

Experiencing a relapse may indicate that therapy has to be restarted or modified. Keeping up with therapy for the whole allotted time is also crucial. According to the available research, more time spent in therapy is associated with better results. Treatment plans with sufficient durations may be more effective at addressing all of an individual patient’s concerns and demands.

The Consciousness of Self-care:

They are typical risk factors for recurrence. Regular physical activity and a healthy, well-rounded diet may enhance sleep quality. To achieve this goal, one must create and adhere to a routine that includes regular rest periods, physical activity, and healthy nutrition. This helps lessen the likelihood of recurrence and retrains the brain to sleep better.

Slow or Stop

The cravings for alcohol or drugs that many alcoholics and addicts experience when they are hungry, angry, lonely, or exhausted are often the result of these underlying issues. Backslide may be avoided by keeping a HALT inventory regularly

Focused Awareness Practice

Understanding oneself better is one of the primary goals of mindfulness meditation. The ability to deal with probable backslide triggers improves with increased self-awareness. According to the results of NCBI research, those in recovery who participate in a mindfulness-based backslide prevention program do better than those who do not. Those who practiced mindfulness meditation reported fewer cravings, more self-awareness, and reduced emotional reactivity, all of which contributed to their sustained abstinence. Instead of trying to suppress or ignore urges, Mindfulness meditation teaches practitioners to “roll with” them. Learning to accept the inevitable occurrence of cravings is an important step in preventing backslides.

Realize What Sets You off

Internal factors (emotional states like anxiety, impatience, stress, wrath, or poor self-esteem) or environmental cues such as familiar locations or people might act as triggers. The likelihood of backsliding may be decreased by keeping a list of one’s internal and environmental triggers.

Join a Volunteer Organization

Regular attendance in a support group, like Alcoholism (AA) or Drug Abusers (NA), gives cover, accountability, information, and the chance to meet people who understand what you are going through. The presence of a sponsor and the encouragement of peers are both helpful in healing from addiction. It helps prevent backslides by reducing the likelihood of isolation and the emotions of loneliness that might accompany it.

Methods for Establishing a Firm Foundation

Anxiety and stress may significantly slow a person’s healing process. The 5-4-3-2-1 Coping Strategy is an effective grounding approach for reducing the risk of backsliding. It guides you through your five senses to help you stay in the present and away from destructive ideas like drinking or using drugs, worrying, talking negatively to yourself, or dwelling on past mistakes.

How to Avoid Back Relapsing?

Most rehabs for substance abuse teach their patients how to avoid relapsing back into old habits and provide the tools they need to do so. One might include any number of backsliding prevention measures into their daily practice to lessen the likelihood of recurrence. A prevalent misperception is that backslide prevention techniques are only useful when someone is experiencing a desire to use them.


A person’s ability to avoid recurrence once treatment has ended is partially out of their hands. Each person in recovery might benefit from self-care, getting support, being honest, following rules, and altering maladaptive behaviors to avoid backsliding. Find a good group of upbeat, encouraging friends. Do not be afraid to ask for aid while you are struggling; always tell the truth to people helping us on the path to recovery. This includes loved ones, medical professionals, therapists, peers in support groups, and sponsors. Do not miss out on your counseling or treatment appointments. Follow the doctor’s orders while using any vitamins or medicine. Stay away from anything that can trigger memories of previous alcohol or drug usage. Develop the artistic side by learning a new skill, such as a musical instrument, dance, or painting

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